The Chronicle of Peder Svart about Gustav Vasa translated into modern English.

Gustaf Vasa Peder Svart's chronicle

This year marks the 500th anniversary of Gustav Vasa's election as king. To celebrate this, I have made a new translation of Peder Svart's chronicle, using various AI tools, depicting the rise of Gustav Vasa.

I have Swedishized the names and added comments in a gray background, along with incorporating headings. All images are AI-generated, and I have tried to create them based on historical sources. Please note that there may be translation errors due to AI. I am currently in the process of correcting the text to make it as historically accurate as possible and working on manually reviewing the content. I would appreciate any feedback if you notice any errors in the text.

The text was originally written no later than the year 1560. At the end of Gustav and Bishop Peder Svart's lives, the chronicle tells the story of Gustav Vasa's life until the birth of his son, Erik. It is likely that it was dictated by Gustav Vasa himself. A significant portion of the text focuses on legitimizing the royal power while also explaining who his enemies and friends were.
There are several versions of the chronicle, and I have based my translation on this one. the original text It's called "Peder Svarts II," which is likely a revised and more comprehensive chronicle. Learn more about the differences in one. source-critical study of the history of the Gustav Vasa period

Peder Svart's chronicle

#1 The birth and family
When it was written in 1490 on Ascension Day, which fell on the 12th day of May, he was born and then grew up on Rydboholm.

Some older women in the realm, like Mrs. Birgitta, Mr. Erik Ottosson from Peningeby, Mrs. Gunnel, Mr. Erich Turesson from Benhammar, his mother's sister Mrs. Christina, Mr. Sten Svantesson, and Mrs. Brita Christiernsdotter, along with some other women, both noble and common, who were present at his birth, have told that he was born with a victory wreath over his head at birth, above his forehead, as a sign of success.

Similarly, he also had a red cross on his chest. At his baptism, he was given the name Gustaf, which had the blessing of his ancestors that he would follow God's will through his aid. The Baculus Gottorum, which symbolized this, turned out to be fateful in this person.

#2 The young man at Sten Sture the younger's court
During his childhood, he was always quiet and much beloved. When he was with other children, whether they were of noble or non-noble birth, they followed him as a leader and chieftain. He appointed them as his officials based on their ability and intelligence, and they followed his orders without hesitation.

This child's play even occurred when the Danish king Hans was visiting Stockholm Castle (and at that time, young Mr. Gustav was five years old). Then the king approached him, patted him on the head, and said: "You will be a man one day and live long.” When the king understood what he had said, he prayed the old Mr. Sten Sture that he would be allowed to keep the boy with him.

But Mr. Sten replied that he was too young to be separated from his parents but said that he would send him to the king later. However, Mr. Sten deceived him and sent him to Finland. Afterward, the king regretted letting him escape and called him a savage.


In the year 1509, when he was thirteen years old, he was sent by his parents to Uppsala to study under his teachers Magister Henrik Sländorm and Magister Matheo Erici. He initially studied at the Trivial School and later at the university.


Doctor Hemming Gadh was in Rome to represent Sweden's interests and was a chamberlain to Pope Alexander VI. In 1496, he obtained a papal crusade bull against Russia.. Pope Julius II had Gadh excommunicated in 1506, He also had many contacts with Lubeck.

In the year 1514, the realm's first young lord Sten Sture demanded that he should come to the court when he was eighteen years old.

#3 Education and Youth Achievements
He had particularly close contact with the learned and well-educated man, Doctor Hemming Gadd, who had previously been elected as the bishop of Linköping but had been outmaneuvered by the treacherous bishop Hans Brask.

Doctor Hemming was a trusted advisor in young Lord Sten's council and was also a skilled and distinguished warrior, from whom the young Gustav Eriksson could learn a lot. With extensive experience in histories and chronicles, both old and new, and also in Swedish deeds – how our neighbors and other nations and cities had interacted with the Swedes, both over a long period and recently. This awakened in him a good understanding of what was appropriate for governance, which he would also apply in the future. 

And when his lord, the aforementioned Lord Sten, employed him in military actions, he was not only willing to do the same but also very successful. When he was with the troops, the Swedes gained the upper hand and achieved victories such as in the skirmishes at Vädla (Djurgården), Duvenäs, Brännkyrka on Södermalm, etc. Therefore, all faithful Swedes were very positive towards him, even though those who were not friendly towards their homeland developed a strong enmity and aversion towards him. Nevertheless, he received an excessive amount of hatred and resentment, which can easily be understood considering the treacherous Archbishop Gustav Trolle who refused to surrender the Castle and have discussions with Lord Sten, then besieging Stäket, unless he received Gustaf Ericson as a hostage.


He also ordered his servants when he went down from the castle that if he was surprised or prevented from going down from the castle so that he could not return freely, they should immediately hang Gustaf Erickson outside the wall. This was even more remarkable since he was Lady Christina's nephew. What further happened to him and what he did at that time is sufficiently documented in young Lord Sten's chronicle.

Kristian den II ai generated image

But since the same chronicle did not express all the circumstances so extensively, about how he was betrayed and imprisoned by the young Kristian and the other Swedes, it would not be wrong to repeat this event in more detail here.

It was when King Kristian, who had been defeated many times, and his party realized that the Swedes were not only sufficiently good, but also superior to them in open battle, they resorted to other deceptions. Then King Kristian requested to speak with Lord Sten. 

Therefore, he sent to Stockholm an old bishop, named Bishop Erik from Viborg, along with some other Danes, whom he would have gladly sacrificed on the slaughter bench, where he could reveal his heart's false intention to betray Lord Sten. But when he saw that it was despised, he dared to want to conclude a peace treaty with Lord Sten, and therefore personally come and speak with him.

He then requested for security for himself to have Gustaf Eriksson, Doctor Hemming Gadd, Lars Siggesson (Spruce), Jörgen Siggesson (Spruce), Bengt Nielson, and Olof Ryning as a hostage. All these were mentioned and assured in the king's charter, and had sworn an oath that they would come free and unharmed to the king, and likewise return home again in life.

These good men (by Mr. Sten's command) set off in a boat (esping=larger rowing boat), without having more than twelve musketeers with them. 

When they had sailed for half a week, they met Herr Fabric Crab with a sailing ship manned with 100 men, who told them that it was King Christian's request and desire that they should accompany them to Elfsnabben, where he had something special to negotiate with them. The Swedes replied that they were not ordered by their master to proceed further than Kungshamn, where they would not be allowed to trade with the king, as he himself had previously requested. After that, they wanted to turn around and return back to Stockholm.

The Danes answered that the king was so troubled that they had no design at all to besiege him in that place. Then the Swedes realized that there was treachery and cunning, and the assurance they had received and would not be firm, because they could not come to the agreed meeting come to trade.

Then the Danes swore individually and said:In my heaven, there is no point in you getting out of here as unscathed and well as you are.” And when the Swedes now delayed, they meant that they wanted to think and consider the matter further among themselves. Then the Danes attacked them and said:If you do not want to come to the king with good will, then you must now do what you want.” So these good Swedish men and lords became treacherous to King Christian's seal and letter and broke their given promise, honor and promise, and were driven out of the country. This was not the first time, nor the last time, that the Danes used such dishonest tricks against the gullible and gullible Swedes.

But when they had come so far into the archipelago to the king's ship, the king consulted with his men for four days how to catch them in the act, not knowing what punishment they should inflict upon them. In the end it was as decided as the old man Anders Bill had suggested.

He called out Mr. Tyke and said it was the king's will that he should seize (as he called it) the old traitor Doctor Hemming Gadh, and all that were with him in the act. First because the former Doctor Hemming Gadh had been their former queen Kristina's lover when she was regent here in Sweden. The second reason was that the Swedes would have placed some of the Danish nobility on an islet or rock outside Stockholm. The third reason was that they should dare to go against their master, Mr. Stone, to his displeasure, because he despised their master who was an anointed king, and would not enter his ship immediately at his request. And many other vain arguments were rejected. And so on.

#6 About the forced stay in Denmark
Hemming Gadh was demonstrably lying, embellishing every word with bravado and lies. But what could be done about it? Good arguments could not hold, because they were not used to it when the matter is about some dispute between Swedes and Danes. When the Danes see their opportunity, they use it to their advantage, even if it may override reason, honor and honesty. When Hemming Gadd and other Swedes were captured, King Kristian sent them on to a Danish knight named Mr. Erik Eriksson on Kalö.

Mr. Erik Eriksson was an honest and pious man who treated them well, but the food served (salty beer, black and coarse bread, and rancid herring) made him sick and he wished he was at home in his own country. But the Danish young lords (junkars) who served at court and other Danish nobles who visited him were not kind to him and insulted him and the other Swedes, causing outrage among the Swedes.

Sometimes they talked openly (because they hadn't expected him to come out at any time) about how they planned to conquer Sweden again and play "St. Peter's game" with the Swedes, that is, destroy them so that they became few. First of all, the nobility would be eliminated, then the merchants and farmers who had any kind of fortune for (they said) a fat ox are quickly slaughtered.

This does not suit well (he said) that poor Danish men should be allowed to marry Swedish wives, bourgeois wives (poor wives) and their young daughters' estates, farms and possessions. And when they have done that, they will take the houses and grounds of the fat bourgeois. He also said that the Swedish farmers could well learn to plow with a wooden foot and one hand.

They boasted to themselves that they had deceived the gullible Swedes with good, sweet and beautiful words with letters and seals, as experience clearly proved, beneath the same joke lay the old seriousness. Gustaf Eriksson became very upset and frustrated by such insults and sarcasm, so much so that he could neither eat nor drink and his sleep was neither peaceful nor sweet.

He couldn't help but think of how he could take revenge on the unjust prison, where he had been imprisoned on unjust grounds.

1519 the journey from captivity in Denmark to Lübeck

He was miraculously saved by God's help and guidance, and after many perilous situations he finally came to Lübeckk, where he sought rent and justice, because Lübeck was a city known for dealing with justice and patronage.

When King Christian sensed that he had come, he attacked Mr. Erik Ericksson quite severely and sent messengers to send him back, but most of Lübeck were not inclined to deliver him back into the hands of the tyrant. They spoke harshly to him, saying that he was the king's prisoner and escaped from prison, he should have been put back in prison. He countered this by two arguments. No honest man can prove (said he) that I am a prisoner, but a hostage.

When it comes to proving the truth and justice in which prison or in which place I and the other good Swedes were when we were captured, or who it was that attacked us, whoever can prove it correctly and truthfully can come forward . But as long as no one can prove it with valid reasons, we should not be called prisoners, but rather assaulted, surprised and deceived, honest people. And by what right can someone be a prisoner who has never been in prison? Or the one who has not been imprisoned by duty, law or justice? But these reasons would still have been insignificant and would have been of little consequence but for the honest man Mr Nicolaus Bröms, the mayor of Lybeck, had assisted and protected him on grounds of justice (since he had been so fraudulently betrayed in spite of promises, seals, and letters). He took him under his protection and defense.

Image: In the spring of 1520, Gustaf was reached by news of Danish victories and the news of the death of the regent Sten Sture on Mälaren's ice. According to legend, he landed on Stensö just south of Kalmar in May, which there are many question marks about, however he was very much in Kalmar.

The rebellion against Christian II

In 1520, on the last day of May, Gustaf Ericksson arrived Kalmar when the city was not yet given up in King Christian's happens. Then he began with all diligence to deal with the citizens and the warriors who were there (who were a bunch of German jackals) so that they would not surrender the city to King Christian, but instead believe that the kingdom would soon be liberated and free again. He confirmed this agreement in more detail in several words. But the German jacks took offense and if he had not been protected by God, they would have killed him.

The citizens did not defend him very strongly either. He nevertheless urged them to let him leave the city in as good a condition as when he arrived, which was done. When he then sought support from his countrymen in Småland and other farmers whom he hoped would help him, he found that it was badly off everywhere. The Swedes were now so mad and blinded that in many cases they were the accomplices of their oppressors, only to see them suffer, that is, to slander, seduce, lament and corrupt one another among themselves, something which the Danes had no need to do at all.

Then he discovered a little something to teach about what had happened to the Danes and urged them like his fellow Swedes to turn to another mind, to love, reconciliation and justice among themselves. He said that it was not the best for the good of the sheep that the wolves should reconcile and be their judge.

He also added: “If every Swede knew what I know and what kind of hospitality the Danes are planning for you, you would take your things in a different way. It would be much better and desirable if the Swedes gathered their power and strength and resisted the Danish tyrants.”

But this good advice was not followed, instead some of them shot both skektor (large amrborst arrow) and arrows at him and they said stupid and foolish things, and said that they had no need when they had King Christian as their master, for he had promised not to let salt, herring, and other things run out. And with many such feeble words they let themselves be heard, and every time he led himself into the land at that time he could perceive that there was little comfort or understanding to be hoped for at that time.

Then he came to a savior in Södervibod in Småland named Bengt Eriksson at Skällsnäs, this Gustaf Ericson advised him to accompany him to Stockholm and showed him his charter that he had received from the king. But Gustaf advised him on the contrary, to accompany him to Dalarna and not trust the king's peace letter, because Gustaf said he understood what the Swedes could expect from such leads and letters, the same Bengt and several Swedes who did not want to believe this later would discover when they were executed and beheaded along with him.

Some time afterwards he came up to his father's farm Fox nose and kept himself hidden there for a while with a large sum of money from his country guild and other things that belonged to him. 

He then surrendered to the old archbishop Jakob Ulfsson, who had built himself a floor in Gripsholm's monastery, where the Carthusian order lived at the time. He sought comfort from him and asked for good advice on what to do. Archbishop Jacob advised him to go to King Christian, and promised to help him with his letter to the Riksdag to get him rent and a fixed insurance, just like all the others who had long kept in the forest and had been under the eyes of the king and his friends, who Olof Waldram, Peder Skräddare and others, had received letters of peace and with them mercy, friendship and safety, so that they did not have to worry about anything. Any previous crimes would be a done deal.

To make sure of that, the archbishop told him how he himself was involved in the king's peace treaty, which was given to Mrs. Kristina before she opened the castle and city of Stockholm to the king. This was debated and debated for several days, but still Gustaf could not be persuaded or forced to do anything but insist that he would set some fixed conditions for the promises and peace letters of King Christian or the Danes.

Stockholm massacre 8 November 1520

Read Olaus Petri's eyewitness account around Stockholm's bloodbath here in modern Swedish translated with ChatGPT.

In the same days, some news came about how King Kristian had had the heads of the Swedish nobility in Stockholm beheaded, including his father Mr Erik Johansson where, which the cruel and tyrannical incident with young Mr. Stens's Chronicle also mentions. He also learned that his mother's sister, Mrs. Kristina, was held captive despite the king's promise and command. Therefore, Gustaf Eriksson told the archbishop Jacob Ulfsson that it was not time to continue getting rent without thinking of any other advice.

Peaceless in Dalarna

Archbishop Jacob was both horrified and ashamed of the dangerous advice he had given, and not knowing what else to say, he set out from his farm Rävsnäs at the time of St. Catherine, and considered himself to belong to the Dalarna. When he crossed the Kolsundet, an accident happened to his own boy, who turned and ran away with his belongings, clothes and money from his cart. Therefore, Gustaf had to give up and return across the strait and try to catch the boy. When he finally got his stuff back and turned back, he stayed there for eight days. It is known that all his actions and undertakings were not without temptations and dangers.

In the time around Sankt Andreas or later he came to Bergslagen and first gave himself to Anders Pederson in Rankhyttan, and kept himself hidden in peasant clothes. But a maid who worked at Anders Pederson understood that she had seen him in a gold embroidered shirt collar, from which Anders understood who he was. She secretly took him in and recognized him well, as they had studied together at the University of Uppsala twelve or thirteen years ago. She asked him what was going on and gave him the best advice she could. Then she asked him to move to another city as he feared that he would be in some danger for his sake.

Gustaf thought of leaving for Aron Pedersson at Ornäs, but when he ran across the ferry town between Wika and Törsång one night, the ice was so thin that he fell into the water under both arms. But God helped him, even though he was alone, so he got up again and went back to the ferryman's residence and then dried his clothes almost all night, then the next day came to Aren Pedersson, thinking he would be welcome, and told him.

But Aren thought he wanted greater recognition from King Kristian and his entourage, and immediately returned from Asbo to Bengt Brunsson Stig Hansson's brother-in-law, who at that time was King Kristian's bailiff over Bergslagen and all of Dalarna. He informed him of what was going on.

Then Bengt and Aren came together to Ornäs with 20 men and intended to take him by the throat. But when Aren Pederson's wife found out that Aren drove past his farm in Ornäs when he came back from Asbo, she could notice what he had in mind and that he sought out the bailiff Bengt Brunsson as mentioned earlier. She was so wise that she gave Gustaf a warning, gave him a horse, carriage and servant and hurried him to Herr Johan in Svedjö, who had also studied with him in Uppsala. Then Herr Joen hastened him through the valley forest to Rättvik, where he stayed a few days, spoke to the peasants and asked them to be prepared to face the Danish tyranny support to suffering or not.

Rättvik's men answered him well and said that they would gladly resist the Danes. But as they had not consulted the other parishes in the valleys, they did not dare to carry out such an act until they had consulted with the others and had the same plan in mind. Gustaf then went to Mora and negotiated with them.

# 13
Now when Henrik van Mehlen, who was King Kristian's castle bailiff at Västerås, learned that Gustaf had come up to Dalarna, he and his party at the king's command began to see a danger in what happened next and that they would make their position difficult . They therefore quickly sent out men one after the other to seize him by the throat or kill him, or at least make him uncomfortable with the valley men, to whom Stig Hansson, Christoffer Olsson at Kopparberget, Bishop Ottes Broer, as well as mentioned Bengt Brunsson and many other people.

For this purpose, a message was sent to a subject in the valleys named Nils Västgöte, who set off and expected to bring more helpers up there with him if needed. At the same time there was in the valleys a Danish man named Rasmus Jute, who had previously served Mr. Sten and had married there. He gave himself to Gustaf and held out his hand to him. When they found out that Nils Västgöte had arrived, they went to him where he was lying at the home of Joen Koffre, the sheriff of Mora, and hit him on the head. God saw to it that it would happen to himself as he intended it to happen to someone else.

Then, during the Christmas holiday, Gustaf spoke to the people of Mora and explained to them that they should think back and try to resume old customs, and how the Danish regiment used to act here in Sweden. If they had heard or known how the Danish Jusse Erickson (who was King Erik of Pomerania's castle bailiff in Västerås) had persecuted them. Such good will was still with him and he was freedom-loving towards the Danes. But if they wanted to be by themselves and take the matter seriously, he assured that, with God's help, he would be their chief and prevent such depravities as they and the common people of the kingdom faced, there was no time there if intended.

But then he did not get a pleasant answer from them. They said they wanted to remain with the trust they had placed in King Christian and support themselves as best they could. Gustaf left Mora and headed into Västerdalarna.


In 1521 there were dispatches from King Kristan's party to attack him. Tord in Rijsta, Otte Nielson in Holm and a few others were sent off to molest him.

When these came driving across the lake to Rättvik, it happened unplanned that some farmers saw them coming driving, it happened unexpectedly that some farmers when they saw them coming driving, and it was such a large group with well over a hundred horses. they ran away in terror and struck the bells, which was not heard because the weather was bad (in the sun) and the sound of the bells carried away over the parishes.

Therefore, when these had come forth and entered the parsonage, every man in the parishes came with their woolen garments, stormed the parsonage, and broke open the gates with great logs, and had now slain every child. Some of those who had come and took monastic peace and shelter in the church tower.

In the end it came to the Dagting and negotiations that the Dalakarls gave Gustaf Ericksson good words and said that they wanted to support him as Dalakarls so much, but they considered that what they had done was necessary.

Later some valley men came and said that they wanted to support Gustaf Eriksson as men, but that they had had to do what they did and that they would never be able to express themselves well enough for anyone to understand them. Some of them even had to pick up ax hammers to defend themselves when fights broke out. After a while Lasse Olson came to Mora and told them that King Christian had planned to ride through the country and set up gallows at every sheriff's farm, and that they would soon receive letters telling them what was expected of them.

Then some of them murmured and said, God advised us not to repent once when we were opposed to Gustaf Ericksson. Lasse Olson also asked for him and when he realized where he had gone, he seriously advised them to call him back again. Too good but right now that gentleman needs the valley dwellers with quite a lot of Sweden's inhabitants, not to be completely ruined and wiped out.

Shortly afterwards a savior named Inge Michelsson came from Nederby in Trögden, he knew more about this and told in detail about all the tyranny that King Christian had exercised in Stockholm and during his rampage through the kingdom.

He presented this to the peasants in such a way that tears flowed from their eyes. He also said that there were many Swedish courtiers in the country who lay hidden in the forests, who had never submitted to the Danes, nor wished to do so, but rather wished to live their lives as long as they could. This he said he also wanted to do, and that he thought the Swedish regiment too burdensome, because they had been so cruel to the Swedish people and had hung many gallows with Swedish men. The peasants now became anxious that Gustaf should be ready to go out over the mountain towards Norway, in accordance with the advice of Lasse Olsson and Jöns Michelsson, and sent off a man named Engelbrecht with some other skiers who trudged night and day through the forest with great speed, and found Gustaf at the top of Lima.

They at once disclosed their mission and begged him, for God's sake, to turn and come to their aid and rescue. They would now not only exhort him to loyalty, faithfulness, service and submission, but were also prepared to risk their lives and blood with him.

The liberation war in Dalarna

He followed them back to Mora again. There, the foremost people from all the parishes in both eastern and western Dalarna came to him and agreed and crowned him the chieftain of the kingdom of Sweden. They swore to him an oath, obedience and obedience to him and put 16 young men to serve him and watch over him. Thus in God's holy name invocation in a blissful moment he began his regiment. After a few days some deacons (priests) came from Västerås with the same speech as the others had before.

Herr Gustaf stood in front of the valley men so that they would hear his words themselves and ask how things were in the country, which further strengthened the valley men's intention. There were also some old people who kept this secret as a sign of comfort, that every time the valley men and Mr. Gustaf acted in this matter it was always northern weather, which was an old sign that God would give them the happiness they deserved.

Mr. Gustaf then began to strengthen and increase his group on a daily basis. Just when Lasse Olson joined him, along with the other Swedish courtiers who arrived in time for the fixed time, he was 400 strong. He then went with the same force to Kopparberget, captured the mountain bailiff Christoffer Olson and some other traitors, and looted a lot of German trade goods that were in Kopparberget's Falu mine. Among other things, they received some clothes and silk fabric, but quite a lot of silk or cindell, from which they immediately made ensigns (uniform for infantry soldiers).

Then he immediately departed with the king's departure near the mountain and the treasure at Tuna and thereabouts. Then he returned to Dalarna again. Some time after that he went back to Kopparberget and arrived there on a Sunday with a force of up to 1500 men.

When the mountain men and all the people were in the church. and when the tidegärd (tide prayer) was over, he traded with them on the dyke, after the manner that was done before with the valley men.

Then they swore to him obedience and manhood with raised hands. Then the Bergslag residents and the Dalmasians wrote to Hälsingland and asked them to show themselves as faithful Swedes and reject the excessive violence and tyranny of the Danes, which had already become too obvious to the Swedes.

They had determined to proceed with still greater cruelty, and reach to every man's door, so that there was nothing to be supposed but that here there would be so many widows and poor fatherless children that their weeping and wailing would fill every corner of all of Sweden, if they didn't try to stop it in time. Where they wanted to defend themselves and prove themselves manly like their forefathers, the full-hearted Swedes who had done good in the past, there was now good hope that they would experience victory and happiness under the praiseworthy chieftain Herr Gustaf Ericson (whom God had preserved as a spark from the glorious Swedish nobility).

Mr. Gustaf himself wrote to Hälsingland about this. But Archbishop Gustav also did not neglect to write to Hälsingland so that they would not fall under King Christian's power. So a messenger went out to each parish to come together and listen to the letters from Herr Gustaf Ericson and from the archbishop, and the letters went back and forth between the parishes.

Therefore, a great battle arose among the inhabitants of Hälsingland at that time. When Herr Gustaf noticed that the Hälsinglanders were a bit stubborn and did not want to wake up, he himself went to Hälsingland and appointed Peder Svenson in Wirboreboda as chieftain over all his people in the Bergslagen, and he sent Olof Bonde away to pay homage and travel in the western Bergslagen, Lindesberg, Noraskogen, Närke and Åkerbo district, and Olof also turned out to be male at that time in the lands he was sent to. He then proposed that they should attack the enemies at Västerås on the western side, on the same day (namely, April 29) when Herr Gustaf had decided to attack the Dalmatians on the other side.

When he had appointed a new chieftain named Peder Uggla, he withdrew to the army Mr. Gustaf had in Hedemora and the surrounding area. But the group Peder Uggla was the chief of, he was later defeated in Köping because of his imprudence and security, which had been necessary, as mentioned later. This happened three days before Mr. Gustaf struck in Västerås.

At the same time, a letter arrived to the valleys and the bergslagen, in which Archbishop Gustaf, Mr. Erik Trolle (whom King Kristian had appointed lawman in Uppland) and Knut Bengtsson in Engsö wrote together and asked them not to fall from King Kristian. In the same letter they mentioned Gustaf Ericsson and said that they wanted to give him free leave, and that it was advantageous for him to present himself before the king to obtain mercy and grace wherever he would refuse this pressure. In the same letter, they called themselves the Riksrådet in Sweden, but the letter did not mention more than the three, which also made the king's case worse than what they had brought forward. When they received the letter, they realized that the Riksrådet in Sweden was very thin because it only consisted of three people and was not very useful.

soldiers on horseback

Mr. Gustaf traveled to Hälsingland as previously mentioned, and it happened on the third day of Easter. He brought with him 130 men who were well equipped and clad in shining armor, and he appointed Lasse Olson as general. When he arrived at the royal court in Nora, he gathered together the highest men in all the land and spoke to them about the same thing he had written about before. He asked if they wanted to separate from the valleys and mountains or if they wanted to be one with their fathers and forefathers as they had always been.

But the Helsingians (because it seemed impossible for them to undertake it) said they could not give any final answer to that, but both that he wanted even now to have this reason reconciled with them. Their meaning was that they wanted to deceive as long as they could hear first what the team wanted to do with the valley men.

So Mr. Gustaf was dragged from Hälsingland and back to Bergslagen again. But always his company was increased with good and capable Swedish courtiers, those who had mostly stuck to the forest since King Christian got the kingdom. When he had come to Ovansjö in Gästrikland, come to him there Peter Friday.

But then there they were also met with rather bad news, that all his people he had left under Peder Svenson's command would be put down among the people by enemies, which of these news there was no little sorrow and crying (as no one can wonder).

But (thank God) when they got to Huseby monastery, they had better times there, namely that enemies of his people were driven down into the people's parish by Uppland's Väsby ferry, which was then added. Archbishop Gustav, Bishop Jöns Billenacke, Knut Bengtsson and master Dijrick, the one in Västerås was with a large number of people on horse and foot at 6000, these when they heard what was on the way over Långsjöhed, they took a large number of people with them and went in to Brunnbäck's ferry, thought he could persuade the Swedes not to cross the river.

There has been such a discussion, where those who were present had their own opinions. Bishop Billenacke asked the Swedish gentlemen who were there about all the apartments, including how many people from the end of the country can gather from Långheden (Longeheden)? He got the answer up to 20,000.

Then he asked further, where could so many people get food? He received the answer that the people were not fastidious, they mostly used to drink nothing but water, and when necessary they could content themselves with bark bread.

Then Billenacke said that those who could eat wood and drink water, the devil does not compel them, let alone any man. Brethren (said he), let us depart hence soon, &c. But when the valley men heard that they were there, they were so greedy that they set out across the river at Västerås, and when the enemies turned on them, they were put to flight as is known. Master Dijrick, Knutt Bengtson went to his camp in Västerås, but Archbishop Gustav took with him Staffan Henrickson (who had previously been Mr. Sten's companion in Hälsingland) with some Stockholm farmers and others, set out to sea and sailed to Hälsingland, gave a speech in every parish along the coast, beginning from the north and proceeding south, did all their pains to keep them under the obedience of king Christian, praising and praising the king much for many virtues, which all knew he was far from.

And in every speech the archbishop was heard to express his unchanging duty, saying: “You good men and other Swedes can do what you want, but I will never ever submit to the good King Christian, as long as there is a drop of warm blood in my heart.Staffan Henriksson also said in the same way. With these words, the situation worsened more than it improved. They could work on this as much as they wanted, but they still didn't get a good response from the people of Hälsingland. King Kristian's real virtues should become more known day by day, in the same way that it was now noticed that Herr Gustaf Erikson's measures were gaining more and more success.

Some of the inhabitants of Hälsingland, those who were Staffan Henriksson's friends, told him privately to renounce the strict duty of loyalty which had inclined him to support the tyrannical Danish king. They pointed out that in the future, when the world would turn differently, no one in Hälsingland would trust him until he proclaimed the same duty again and (no doubt) would repeat such or stricter loyalty to the king. When the archbishop came to Gävle, the city and Gästrikland had fallen into the hands of Herr Gustaf. Therefore the archbishop could not land there, but they kept him away with rifles and arrows.

He had to travel south. When he arrived in Öregrund, he learned that his companion Bengt Biug had gone ahead to Stockholm and that his farm in Uppsala had been burned down. He hastened as much as he could to Stockholm, but every time he tried to land on Roden or near Häverö, Wädö or elsewhere, he was met by peasants with staves and other weapons and prevented from reaching the mainland. Now when Mr. Gustaf came back from Hälsingland with his people who were lying at Hedemora, he was happy that everything went well with them. He diligently trained them in acts of war and taught them to make spears, which at that time they used to call liurangers or liurangerstenge (knife spears). He also taught them how and what to use them for, just as he had previously taught them to forge valley arrows, which he improved by using slanted axes instead of too long spears that could not penetrate armor. At the same time he set up and founded carvings in Hedemora, set on one side a sculpted figure and on the other two valley arrows of the same quality as King Christian's carvings.

At the same time some Swedish courtiers joined him, and among them a capable man named Lasse Ericson, who was then used by Herr Gustaf both against enemies and as a bailiff. Peder Gröm was also in the squad. Then they continued along the road over the Långheden, dragging everything carefully with them, and traveled with them to Tjurbo county, Norrbo county and Sjuhäradsbyggden.

In many places where he came, some were accused of showing too much good will to enemies, like an angry villain in Färnebo parish named Lasse Ingevaldsson in Åleboda, who always brought the enemy's message and many had been killed because of it, likewise if he knowing that the poor peasants had hidden their belongings and food in the forest, he told it to the enemies, so that everything would be taken from them.

Herr Gustaf then had his head and his corpse chopped off. At Romfartuna, Herr Gustaf sent the people to Rotetaell and Fenecketaell (ensigns) under the command and direction of commanders and courtiers, and this happened on knight St. Goran's day, which fell on a Tuesday. Then appointed Lasse Olsson and Lasse Ericson as commander-in-chief over their half of the rather large army. The most important requested that some proxies be appointed to protect him, which he himself did not want either, but they convinced him that it was necessary because the kingdom had now suffered under pressure and decay since the kingdom's master, the young lord Sten, had disappeared from them, so that he also placed himself in the forefront. I know well, dear sir (said they), that you are the only spark on which, according to God, all the welfare of the kingdom of Sweden depends.

Better good and less harm that this army was around the neck than one person alone. With this he gave himself up to peace. So they went after his life, Måns Nilsson at Aspeboda, Anders Pederson at Rankhyttan, Herr Gudmund Spegel, Master Jöns who then became parish priest in Tyllinge.

In the meantime, three days before the battle of Västerås, Peder Uggla and his band were defeated in Köping, as previously mentioned, and so it happened. A Danish man named Anders Pederson and lived at Kungsgården Strö in the Köping parish (who is mentioned in the chronicle of King Hans and Old Lord Sten) had come here to the kingdom during the time of King Hans, and had married into the highest nobility, the nobility. The same Anders Pederson was an angry, fierce and cunning man. Now King Kristian's foot was on Örebro castle, as well as over Närke, Åkerbo district, Lindesberg and Nora forest. Now when he heard that Peder Uggla traveled and paid homage to the commoner Herr Gustaf, he used all the tricks and tricks he could to depose

Peder Ugglas recruit and make the common people loathe him. He could well use crocodile tears, cruel to the peasants, pitying them and slandering what it would mean for them if they should ever acquire the good lord King Christian's displeasure. For which reason, Peder Uggla immediately followed him with his whole pack, pursued him all the way to Köping. There he caused obvious scandals, got drunk, went to sleep in a luxury bed, didn't bother with guard duty or anything else that war trade entails. The greater part of the people also did the same thing with him, those who had no room in the city encamped there on Åsen, lit more than 300 fires for themselves, lay there full.

But one named Eric Pederson, a resident of Lindesberg, advised his party of Lindesberg's men from such dangerous enterprises, took refuge in the forest somewhere, therefore he was also preserved, except for some drunken dogs who followed him and who repeatedly spilled beer.

But Anders Pederson traveled as fast as he could to Västerås, traded with Master Dijrick and collected 3000 warriors there. With them he went back to Köping as fast as he could, when it was three o'clock in the afternoon, and arrived at Köping shortly after midnight. There he attacked and killed a group that was staying there. Peder Uggla was also beaten while he was lying in his bed. Then Anders Pederson returned with the same warriors back to Västerås.

Later, when Herr Gustaf had taken over power in the kingdom, it was still discovered that Anders Pederson was guilty of the decay in Köping and he was pardoned. But the assault in Köping could not melt the hearts of those who were friends and relatives of those who died there. Therefore, they got together and went to Anders Pederson's residence and beat him to death. This happened six years later and it was a fair reward for his merits. But these mountain men were punished by Mr. Gustaf with a sum of money because they did not prevent Anders Pederson from enjoying his free letter.

Master Dijrick hastily called the people back from Köping when he heard that Herr Gustaf was on his way. At the same time, the castle bailiff Henrick van Mehlen was not at the castle but had traveled to Stockholm with his squad. He had placed a certain Hans Fynbo with six others in the castle and put him in charge. To this Hans Fynbo Master Dijrick sent messengers and demanded that he open the castle gate, but when Hans Fynbo refused, saying that he was forbidden by Henrick van Mehlen to give entrance to anyone but him personally, Master Dijrick came with all his warriors and besieged the castle. But they didn't manage to get in.

When the castle gate was opened for him, he immediately took Hans Fynbo and the other six in the castle law by the neck, easily led them over the castle gate (castle gate) and beat their wrath at their feet into the monastery gate. (comment: The castle hat is a name for a type of headdress or hat worn in the Middle Ages. It was a tall, pointed hat with wide brims and often decorated with feathers or ribbons. The castle lounge was usually intended for people of higher social status and was often used as a symbol of authority or status.)

But the Danish and German men-of-war, who were in Västerås, kept quiet with many contemptuous words and said that if the valley dwellers rained down from the sky for three weeks, they would still put them down. They had even had all the fences within a mile around Västerås cut down.

So now that Herr Gustaf had arrived with his people in the formation he wanted The spaceship, they pulled on Sunday after midnight down to Balung. It was the third Sunday after Easter called the Dominica Jubilate.

On the Monday after that, March 29, Gustaf ordered his people to cross Balung's forest and lay down at Saint Olof's chapel, not wanting to fight the enemy that day. But when the enemy caught sight of them, they immediately attacked with horse and foot like ravening lions. When the Swedes saw this, they went towards them and held them off with spears, but when the enemy began to retreat, the dal men did not forget to execute them with sharp axes and dal arrows, so that more than 400 horses lay dead on the ground in the first line.

When Herr Gustaf himself (who was then nearer the middle of the forest) heard that the battle had begun, he wished at last to ride forward and be among the first (as he feared they would not be able to take the matter as seriously as they did), which he did that his life was in the greatest danger and they could take him prisoner. When the Danes were defeated and fled, they were struck with such terror, that the knights (who escaped in such a dreadful manner) ran upon their own infantry which stood in the way, and burst into Smedjegatan.

They pursued the serious Lasse Ericson with his army, but Lasse Olson came with his army on the other side into Långatune and came behind their field guard, where it was stationed in the square facing Smedjegatan. He put down gunners and all the people he found there, so he got field guards, gunpowder and lead, all of which he immediately brought out to Mr. Herr Gustaf, who then had his abode on the ridge north of the town at St. Olof's chapel.

However, Lasse Ericson pursued the enemies no further than Lisleåen, and when they saw that they were repulsed, they immediately set fire to the village. So almost the whole city burned down, including the roof and tower of the Cathedral.

But the enemies, who were practically abandoned, despaired of life and well-being, some ran into the lake with horse and harness and stayed there for a long time, so that nothing more than their heads could be seen above the water. Some threw away spears and halberds or whatever weapons they had, ran into the monastery and cried out and demanded absolution.

This was now the first triumph and victory, which the almighty God graciously bestowed upon the Swedes under this honorable Mr. Gustaf Ericson.

Now the Swedes, (when this heroic victory was spurred) who had been downright despondent here, began to raise their heads and regain courage, thanking and promising God in heaven that the happy day had dawned for some time, and that they heard here some spark again be, of the chivalrous Swedish nobility, the one who dared to set out for his poor, always damp and smoking fatherland.

But the whole host of the enemy was not slain (although it had really been, as the Swedes had not abandoned the pursuit of them at the monastery bridge as before mentioned) it happened that when the mountain men and valley men saw that the fire was set on the village, and knew well that there was an enormous amount of goods there, yes every stall was full, likewise all the wine cellars under the council house and up on the cathedral were full of much wine, mead, cherry drink and beer, therefore they went back, broke open the stalls, plundered and divided the goods between them.

A party sat down to drink and soon became drunk with wine, and then fell out with some mountain men who had brought their field clothes. They were in the square next to Smedjegatan and laid down gunners and what the people had brought with them including field meat, gunpowder and lead which they quickly brought to Mr. Gustaf, who had his residence on the ridge on the north side of the town at Saint Ursula's Chapel.

Lasse Eriksson pursued the enemy, but no further than Lisleån. When the enemy realized they were defeated, they set fire to the village. So then the whole city burned down with the roof and the tower of the cathedral burning to the ground. But the enemy, being almost defeated, despaired of their life and welfare. Some escaped with horses and armor into the lake and remained there for a long time without more than their heads being seen above the water. Others threw away spears, halberds, and whatever weapons they had and ran into the monastery, calling out to the monks and asking for absolution.

This was the first triumph and victory that the Almighty God humbly gave to the Swedes under the leadership of the honorable Mr. Gustaf Ericksson. When the Swedes heard of these beautiful victories, they lifted their heads and regained their courage. They thanked and promised God in heaven that the blessed day would ever occur again, and that they might hear some glimpse of chivalrous Swedish nobility daring to give themselves up for their weary, smoking fatherland.

But the entire enemy force was not defeated (which surely would have happened if the Swedes had not stopped chasing them at Klosterbron, for concerned honor). When the mountain men and the valley men saw that the town was burning in the village and knew that there were very valuable goods and all the wine stalls under the town hall and in the cathedral, all full of quite a lot of wine, cherry drink and beer, they went back to, opened the stalls plundered and divided the goods between one. A person sat down to drink and quickly became drunk with wine. Some Bersmen.

During the same days, Gustav Vasa left the Danes and to him came many capable Swedish courtiers, among whom was a certain Arvid Västgöte. He immediately sent him off to Östergötland to disturb the enemies and take care of Stegeborg, which he performed as an honest and just man. In the same way, Lasse Pederson was sent to take care of Nyköping, Olef Bonde to Örebro, and easily and quickly they traveled to Räkarna, Åkerbo hrad, Snävringe and Tuhundra hrad to deal with the enemies and secure the area. They camped west of the castle at Saint Gertrud's chapel. When the fire was out, they broke up and went north along the Lissån and appointed Lambregt Matson and Lille Jöns Person* as chieftains for the people who remained there, so that it was protected from both enemies and Swedes.

A few days later, Knut Bengtson on Engsö was shot down by the Skåne with a bullet in the middle of his body, when he thought he was walking between the castle and the small camp by the monastery, so that he fell with his left side into the river. But Lasse Ericson sent away a young fanatical soldier called "pedestrian” from Uppsala, and a savior named Jöns Olson in Redebro lived in Telleberga parish, who would come to Simetuna and Törstuna districts to help and come to the rescue.

But Jöns Olson himself was very clumsy and unskilled in such matters, he made a mistake and was surprised by Bengt Biugg, who was the archbishop's bailiff in Uppsala. He sent a hundred strong men to Törstuna and killed the aforementioned Jöns Olson in a sauna cabin. When Gustaf heard about this, he quickly sent Lasse Olson to take care of it.

The same thing happened before j with pre-selected districts. But soon after Bengt Biugg had killed the pre-recruited Jöns Olson, he attacked Lasse Eriksson who was in Enköping with the people he had. But then Biuggen was defeated and fled to Uppsala. Then Lasse Erickson wrote to Lasse Olson and asked him to come to him as quickly as possible and take the people with him to Rijmningen, where they were to meet. But Lasse Erickson traveled with Åsende häräd, Trögd Haund and Laund.

When they had laid down at the Rijmningen, and the rumor reached Uppsala that such guests were expected, the Canons, together with the Mayor and Council Lasse Erickson and Lasse Olson, wrote and begged them to be so kind as not to disturb the feast of St. Eric while it was in progress, as they wished bring Saint Eric's coffin and shrines with appropriate solemnity and procession to old Uppsala as was customary, etc.

They sent four priests and two citizens with the letter there. To this Lasse Olson and Lasse Erickson replied that according to Swedish custom and native practice they would bring Saint Eric's coffin and shrines and not foreign ones, therefore they would do their best in this matter and were already on their way to fulfill this service.

But at the same time they kept all the envoys or postmen, both priests and citizens, as hostages, and said they would not release them until the whole army had marched to Uppsala. Bengt Biugg also sent out many scouts to get information about the whereabouts of the army at Rijmningen, but the Swedes had been so careful and prepared with ambushes and guards, that they caught every spy they came across.

Bengt Biugg with the men of war he had at Biskopsgården (which there could be up to 100 men on horse and 3 rorts of jacks) insisted and spat that they would not be in any danger from the Swedish army, and to show how fearless and fearless he where, he arranged a festive banquet one evening in the garden between the great bishop's court and the small court. He threw down beams on both sides of the garden so that the people could see how much he respected the enemy when they were near. Here wine was drunk, here there was singing and dancing with pipes and drums, with shouting and braying, all until midnight.

But the joy had an unfortunate end. When it was close to two o'clock in the morning, Lasse Olson and Lass Ericson came with their army and laid down right next to Biuggen's sentinel by the fence outside Saint Örjan's chapel. Three mighty Scanian baskets (which were called kupors) were placed at the gate to the bishop's court. Two of them the Swedish horsemen had struck down, cut a great hole in the gate, and done similar damage to every gate leading to the court, before any one awoke from the good feast in the archbishop's court.

When they finally woke up, they started shooting their shotguns and shooting sticks at the Swedes as much as they could. But thanks to the grace of God, they could not harm anyone. Moreover, they shouted and shouted in Swedish and used obscene language and called their enemies fools, just as fools usually do, and they despised their enemies just as they themselves could win over them.

When the Swedish soldiers discovered that Bengt Biugg had made a surprise attack through a passage leading from the Bishop's Court into the cathedral, they set fire to the passage which lay between the great and the small bishop's court, and the fire spread to the great court because it was made of wood. The Swedish soldiers also used bows and arrows and shot into the roofs, which were covered with quills and fists. When Bengt Biugg saw it, he set fire to the city on all sides of the bishop's yard, but the Swedish soldiers immediately put it out again.

As Bengt Biugg saw that his glass had now expired and that he would either burn up or become a prisoner of the Swedes, he mounted his horse. All the courtiers and jacks he had with him did the same and dragged him along. They broke open the gate to the Bishop's Court and destroyed it. Before retreating, he loaded all the shots and left them ready to be ignited on the wall. In this way, he wanted to confuse the Swedes so that they would not understand anything other than that it was military units on the farm who were shooting. Women and other female folk who were on the farm and some burghers whom he had captured, and over whom he had appointed a certain Lasse Stenhuggare as courtier, walled themselves into a cellar and remained there. A few days later, when the fire had gone out, the Swedes broke open the windows and took control of the yard. When Biugg destroyed the farm, some of the Swedes ran after him, but realizing that they would not be able to catch him, they sent some arrows after him as he rode across the ford in Flötesund. 

Not all the arrows missed their target, one hit Biugg in the elbow and went straight into the tube from the wrist to the elbow so that no more than the tip was sticking out. He brought it with him to his lord the archbishop (who was then probably from Norrland) in Stockholm. This was for him a security and a password because the Swedes had traded with him. A few days after he had arrived in Stockholm, the archbishop also came home from Norrland and was able to show Bengt Biug's passport. He wanted to help him, but when the barbers pulled the arrow out of his elbow, he gave up.

After three weeks, Lasse Olson and Lasse Ericson had pursued Biuggen and his party from Uppsala. Then Mr. Gustaf himself arrived from Västmanland and arranged many necessary things. Among other things, he traded cannons in the chapter house and asked them if they wanted to keep them as Swedes or Danes. They rejected them and some of their past dishonest deeds that they and their ancestors had done during the time of King Charles, old Mr. Sten Sture and young Mr. Sten Sture. They clearly declared that if they did not now desist from such actions it would not go unpunished, and they asked them if they would put their hands to him and show themselves as faithful Swedes by actions and deeds.

But they apologized, and said they could not answer at present, till they had written a letter to their lord the archbishop, to obtain his permission. They also hoped that they could convince the archbishop to leave the Danes and come with them to the kingdom because he was a native Swede. Mr. Gustaf replied that he would not only give permission for it but would also write to him personally regarding it, which he did.

He wrote to him with kindness, asking him to prove himself a Swedish man who wished to be with him, and that they would all help their fatherland to get out of the present alien and tyrannical situation. This letter was sent to the archbishop in Stockholm with a canon in Uppsala named Master Hans Pauli. But the Archbishop did not receive the letter but with great disdain and contempt. He told Henrik Slaghöök, the lord of the castle in Stockholm, and several of King Kristian's principals that he himself would answer Gustaf Ericson to his letter. He kept the letter courier with him until he and his people had come half a mile from Uppsala. Then the archbishop prepared himself with a mighty crowd.

So the archbishop got ready with a huge group of warriors, 500 on horseback all in shiny armor and 3000 jacks, and headed for Uppsala. When they had come to a forest towards Vedbo called Åsen, one named Sigfrid Swart gave himself up from them, he ran to Uppsala as fast as he could to give Herr Gustaf warning that he would not be surprised. He came to Uppsala in the evening when Mr. Gustaf sat over the meal, told him this, but Mr. Gustaf did not want to fully believe his words, supposing that his letter carrier Master Hans would return with better news from the archbishop. 

Then a certain Hans came to Ormegård, he brought with him 16 righteous smock cutters, which he had captured from the Danes that they had beaten on some islets, Mr. Gustaf ordered Lasse Olson to distribute them among his servants. Before an hour came, Master Hans also mentioned and had the same news that the archbishop was then with his army at Fålhäbro. But Mr. Gustaf was not more than 600 strong at that time, after the farmers had then returned home.

The following morning, at six o'clock, the archbishop went to the city, then Mr. Gustaf set off towards Nostan, but Staffan Henricksson (who was then with the archbishop and who was also a very skilled and cunning warrior) immediately followed him with 100 horses, all the way to Lädeby wad. When Mr. Gustaf had arrived in the middle of the stone ford, and a Finnish peasant was riding after him, when the same peasant looked back and saw enemies coming looking for him, he was so frightened that he gave up a cry, and quickly ran into Mr. Gustaf who was then sitting on a small rock, so that the rock fell over with him in the calf. Then this good gentleman was not far from the mouth of death. When his companions saw this, they seized stalls and held off the enemies until their master had re-emerged from the ford. Some of the enemies were so greedy that they ran into the bet after the Swedes, but they met Lasse Olson with some other of Mr. Gustaf's servants and showed them back again with a nice cut.

Then Herr Gustaf brought his people back to Rijmningen and waited for them to gather again. Then Lasse Ericson and Lasse Olson sent off with the best and most suitable people he could get hold of. They traveled to Laund The inertia together with Håbo county and Bro county. They prepared well for the Archbishop and his troop at the Lindasunda works. They prepared a bathhouse for them and paid to use it. They also asked that no child from the archbishop's troop should come to Stockholm again without first informing Staffan Henriksson who was always with the army scouting for enemies and dangers. Lasse Olson then went back to the Archbishop and informed him that if they continued along the path they planned to take, they would be attacked by angry and determined enemies. They then turned around and chose another path. When the Swedish soldiers found out about this, they chased them and a fierce battle ensued.

Unfortunately, only every eighth man survived the battle and returned to Stockholm. Lasse Olson came close enough to stab the archbishop with his spear, but missed him as he dodged. Instead, the spearhead hit one of the archbishop's courtiers, who was then nicknamed Jöns Biskop. Archbishop Gustav never visited Uppsala and none of those who followed him, including Staffan Henriksson, came to the city until they were pardoned and accepted by Herr Gustaf. Later, the Swedish troops marched towards Stockholm and stopped and camped at Brunkeberg.

There at the top of the mountain were four gallows filled with hanged Swedish men. The gallows were cut down and they buried those who had been hanged there. One morning, treacherous and stealing from them, four courtiers who had previously served Bishop Otto in Västerås (who Master Didrick had brought with him from Västerås when his party was rejected) surrendered.

The same Bishop Otto had been very treacherous to his fatherland. The Swedes did not notice the four courtiers until they were on the bridge at the north gate and the enemies began to lower the drawbridge to enter. Then Lasse Olofsson ran after them and caught them by the neck, where they had not run off the horses and fallen into the current. Lasse Olofsson took the horses and led them away. But when he did not remain there, his luck became so good that the tower above the gate where he was was not on fire. He heard them shout many times fire, and then threw down a large stone at them, which hit him badly in the head so that he had two holes in his forehead for the rest of his life.

A few days later the enemy attacked with two groups, one on each side of Brunkeberg, and the Swedes being too weak, did not think they could hold out against both groups. Still they fought there for half a day. But in the end they had to flee and suffered great damage.

During the same time or somewhat earlier, Lord Gustaf of Helsingborg fell into the hands of the enemy and they sent him people with whom he was to man his camp.

Then the Swedes struck back at Rotebro where there was a lot of fighting. They were daily tried by enemies, the game fell hard for them.

During this time, a Swedish surprise occurred where Lasse Eriksson was a general alone at Rotebro, and so it happened. Stefan Henriksson came out of Stockholm with a mighty crowd of King Kristian's people.

When he arrived at Sollentuna church, he lived there with the whole army, taking only around 40 horses with him, and also the poorest and some jacks. He rode up to Rotebro under the Swedes' redoubts, stopped as if to inspect their camp. The Swedish archers met him and some of his men from about eight to ten horses. Then Staffan shouted that he had lost and asked to escape. But Lasse Ericson and the other Swedes could not believe his treacherous actions, so Lasse Ericson called out to them to attack. As they came out onto the plain at full speed, Staffan turned and attacked them with his great pack, and this resulted in most of them falling to the ground. After about three weeks there was no longer any enemy left either at Rotebro or anywhere else towards Stockholm.


In July came Staffan Sasse to Herr Gustaf with 60 righteous German jacks who turned out to be real heroes. They had great experience in war and enemies had previously had less success and courage. Same Staffan Sasse had previously been on Åland when the Swedes commandeered Kastellholm and tried to surprise King Kristian's people. But it did not succeed, because there were experienced warriors on the spot. Then Staffan sailed to Öregrund with his hunts, went ashore with his people and came to Mr. Gustaf, as previously mentioned. But the hunts were soon removed by Soren Norby.

For the people that Herr Gustaf had sent to Åland, he had placed a chieftain called Henning van Brokenhaus, he was a capable warrior and showed himself manly at Kastelholm Castle. At one point, the Castle Bailiff, Lyder Freess, challenged the same Henning to a duel, where the two would meet with a sharp sword. Henning accepted the challenge. The duel took place the next day at eight o'clock, which it did

But Henning well perceived that the enemy thought with the same insidious plan to attack the camp from a distance, so he instructed his people what they should do, and placed another like Hövitsman in his place. He also predicted that he would fall, because he had only weak horses while the enemy had strong and robust ones. But if he fell, he told them to be awake and ready with their weapons, as they would then immediately attack the serious attempt. And that's exactly what happened.

As they ran together, Henning's horse mounted the mounds and fell, and Lyder's axman immediately hit Henning and succeeded in getting him in the castle. The enemy then quickly fell into the hands of the Swedish soldiers. But having followed Henning's instructions so well, they fought back so hard that the enemy was forced to retreat with 35 casualties, while the Swedish troops lost only two. This happened in the winter, just before Christmas Eve. If you want to know what their words were before they joined together, it was this: When they asked each other who they would fight for or who they wanted to sacrifice themselves for, Lyder said he wanted to run for all the wives and maidens in Denmark.

Henning replied that he only wanted to fight for his beloved Mr. Gustaf Ericsson's sake. Samme Henning later married Herr Bengt Nilsson's sister from Benhammar, but she was not very capable. Herr Gustaf would have wanted to arrange a better and more suitable wife for him if Henning had not allowed herself to be deceived by her. During that time, Mr. Gustaf did not have much peace or freedom either. He had his people in many camps and orders, and bore fear and danger to all, that they might not be surprised by safety or carelessness. He was also sad that he had little money at the bottom of the coffin, and that is why he had to respond sadly when the people called for payment. Therefore he did not stay in one place for many days but traveled night and day between the camps.

He also had a camp site and house called Haund called Wijk, which belonged to Knut Nilsson, who was there himself and held it more than a year against the Swedes. Therefore, Herr Gustaf had to travel around. But when people thought he would be in Uppsala, he was at Stäkeborg, Rotebro, now also at Västerås, now at Wijk, now at Tynnelsö, Eckholm, Engsö, Nyköping, Örebro, now in other places, and so on.

Earlier it was mentioned that Mr. Gustaf had sent Arvid Västgöte to Östergötland on Pentecost. He acquired some companions in Närke, then moved on Wadstones, had the town hall bell rung, called all the citizens together and asked if they wanted to join Mr. Gustaf Ericsson. They answered no and said that they were too busy both with the bishopric in Linköping and other places to rebel against King Christian or to anger Bishop Brask in Linköping. But Arvid called his people into the city and then began to speak more harshly to them, saying that they would either give up Mr. Gustaf or it would cost them their lives and property. They had to follow his will. Then he got some companions from them, which he also got in other places.

A group of young men, apprentice goldsmiths and sons of other artisans, went to him. They went to the court and presented Johan Slengewatter, who fled to Munkeboda, Bishop Brask's castle. Arvid Västgöte took livestock and everything that was in the farm and gave most of his people as free trade. But the same Slengewatter was later beaten to death in the forest near Munkeboda when he was looking for womenfolk.
But by Harald Knutsson's servant, named Henrik dressed in women's clothes for that matter guilt. But Bishop Brask had him brought to Linköpings and buried him in the cathedral, but he was later caught and burned at the gallows.

When Arvid Väsgöte had arranged everything in Västerås and the court, he went to Skänninge, Linköping, Norrköping, Söderköping and got the common people to pay homage to Herr Gustaf everywhere. He then came to Stäkeborg in June.

å had started the order north to named Hans Skrivare. He ordered Arvid
The castle to the south and set up camp in Skällevik's rectory. After Arffued noticed that His Scribe was not very fit for such duties, he asked him to join some other force where he could be of some use. Arvid himself wanted to do the hardest thing at Stäkeborg with his own entourage. Hans Skrivare went to Västervik and ordered Stegeholm.

In July came Soren Norby next to Stäkeborg Castle with 16 ships and yachts. He did his best to prevent the Swedes from ordering and settled on the land by the old castle. Arvid Västgöte then had only 38 men with him, including Kalmar Niels who was a courtier and had with him 3 roter jacks whom he called his French because he had given them a mixed outfit of half wallmar and half green cloth.

Sören went ashore with 300 men and fought there in the slogans. The Swedes fought back with what little force they had and drove him from the land, as the greater part of his people sought refuge on the lake. Sören ran and jumped into the lake himself. A Swedish courtier named Lille Bengt ran after him on his horse and struck him four times with a steel bow before his people could rescue him and drag him off into the hunt.

Then Soren had cried aloud and praised the courtier for what he had done, saying that he was worth ten men's wages, and would liberally give him any favor if he ever chose to serve him. A few days later, Sören left the castle and took Herr Holger Carlsson and Herr Niels Bosson with him to Denmark, and appointed Herr Bernd von Mehlen as chieftain there. But the Swedes stuck to the order and did not allow themselves to be driven away or give anything up until they got the castle.

In August, Mr. Gustaf himself came down to Östergötland, went first to Söderköping and then to Stegeborg, and in the camp he dealt with Arvid Västgöte and the people he had under his commander, thanked them for the splendid resistance they had shown and made such manly resistance to Soren Norby , and let them have their pay. He also eagerly asked for bishop Hans Brask and what he had done before. But when he heard that he was lying in his castle of Munkeboda, lurking for news from Denmark, that the Swedes' enterprise would fail, he sent him a letter and asked him to come quickly and give his opinion, or he would immediately suspect him of hospitality. Then he himself quickly moved east with a good number of soldiers.

But when Brask found out about this and also that Herr Gustaf's forces were getting stronger day by day, he no longer dared to lie, but instead came to him in Skärkind (with 60 huge courtiers) where Herr Gustaf spent the night in the rectory and where some gave him their hands Immediately. One of them was Gudmund Skrivare, who in the future became bailiff at Stockholm Castle and married a nobleman, namely Eric Ryning's surviving widow. Then Bishop Hans also expressed his loyalty and kindness to Mr. Gustaf, but what he really thought, you couldn't really understand. Herr Gustaf then went to Linköping, where he issued a general day to Vistena (to which he called all the most prominent from all the estates in the countryside throughout the Göta kingdom, namely Östergötland, Småland, Västergötland, Värmland and Värend &c) to be held at St. Bartholomew's Day soon after. In the same way, while he was in Linköping, Johan Slängewatter (of whom previously mentioned), he who had been buried in the cathedral, was taken and brought out to the gallows where he was burned.

Then Herr Gustaf moved on Wadstones where he prescribed a lord's day in Vadstena where he 30 huge Swedish courtiers, who a fortnight ago had traveled from Kalmar from Soren Norby to Vadstena, most of them were of noble birth. These were the leading ones: Joen Olofsson to Hackesta, Måns Jönsson, who had been Soren Norby's foreman, Axel Ryning, Claes Bengtsson and his brother Lill-Knutt Bengtsson, Lill-Jens Pedersson, all of whom were of noble birth, as well as Bengt Västgöte and a pious Danish man who had served Mr. Sten before, called Jens Fynbo and others. All these men extended their hands to Mr. Gustaf i Wadstones, except for the Swedish courtiers who had previously traveled from Soren Norby - some from Kalmar and some from Skåne - sometimes four, sometimes six, sometimes more together, so they could have been up to 70 people together. With the last ones there was also Peder Hansson at Walsta and more.

Some believed that Soren Norby had given these Swedes some safekeeping because he was not considered a courtier who would allow himself to be butchered like a chicken, if he could see any chance of saving his own life. It was also considered likely that Sören had jokingly given them some warning because he thought it was inhumane to kill so many innocent blood, as he had at this time received King Kristian's written command to have all of them beheaded regardless of whether they were Swedish nobles or non-nobles .

The lord's day in Vadstena, which was touched on earlier, went quickly. It began on August 24, which was St. Bartholomew's Day, which then fell on the tenth Sunday after trinitatis (Trinity). Many people from all estates in the Kingdom of Göterik came there and were happy about the success that Herr Gustaf had achieved in Uppland. They called out to him and asked him to take the name of king, to be their first and king, and they wanted to know him well and swear oaths and allegiance as a king in Sweden and obedience as a king in his tribute.

But Mr. Gustaf briefly said no to this and that he had not taken this war to stand up for any kingdom or name, but rather for justice and to protect his poor fatherland against the excessive violence and tyranny under which the Swedes suffered. He had also understood more when he was in the unjust prison in Denmark, how it was even a hundred times worse from Christian II and the Danish rulers.

Therefore he now asked nothing but that those in every city should render him assistance and prove that he was a Swede and help save our fatherland from its distress and yoke, and speak of no kingship until God has helped us to regain peace in the kingdom. Then we can meet and discuss, and the ordinary estates in the kingdom can sense what the native Swedes want, but I will also accept and obey them. So also Herr Gustaf swore fidelity and loyalty, just as had previously happened in Uppland, so that all the estates gathered would know him as a real courtier and lord of the Swedish kingdom.

When the lord's day was over, Herr Gustaf sent some soldiers to Västergötland and other parts of the country where they would reinforce themselves with loyal Swedes and break the enemy's forces. In Västergötland, the Swedes took Läckö castle by surprise, which the pious Swede Master Olof Domprost in Skara managed to do. Elfsborg Castle and the city of Nyköping were also immediately taken. The same thing also happened in Småland, where Christian II's commanders were defeated. When all this was finished in Östergötland and the Swedish troops had reached him from Kalmar, as previously mentioned, he took 18 able men from Arvid Västgöte's group and returned to Uppland.

During the time when Herr Gustaf was in Östergötland, King Kristian sent captains in Stockholm, Juncker Henrick Slaghök and Gorius Holst, a group of people on boats and ships to Västerås to conquer the castle with fresh people and to destroy the fortifications if possible. When they arrived they tried to dock at the Östanån, but Lambrecht Matson, who was in his place in the monastery, fired at them with some falcon nets. Therefore, they turned around and added to the west side of the castle instead. Castle then led the healthy squad and captured the area where the enemy had previously been. They then retreated to Stockholm without being caught, as Herr Gustaf had made the road impassable in some places.

Lasse Pedersson was sent to Kohlesund with a group of people, because they had been threatened from both sides of the strait and the enemy had sunk some large rocks there. When the enemy then came from Västerås, the Swedish troops were supposed to stand against them for two whole days. But in the end they managed to get through and get to Stockholm, but with many dead and wounded, including Jörgen Siggesson and Olof Ryning. Peder Hård was also with them but managed to escape unharmed. The Swedish troops also lost some of their men.

In September, Herr Gustaf also sent a group of people to Finland to resist the enemy and to destroy their fortifications. Nils Arvidsson was appointed as chief and he was followed by a savior from Åland named Henrik Jonsson. They found many honest men there, both of noble and non-noble birth, who would not support King Christian's party, especially the malicious man Nils Grabbe, who often deceived the enemy and surprised them at Raseborg Castle and also at royal estates such as Kumogård and Borgå.

He had his archipelago boats lying in the lake, and when he noticed that they were pursuing him and were too strong for him, he crossed over to Räffle (Riga?) or some other place in Livonia. But he did not stop until he was back in Finland or Nyland again, roused them from their sleep so that they awoke with a sad dream. They often attacked the sheriff's farms, where the whole retinue of the district court was gathered, barred the doors and set fire to the farm, so that he himself often killed twelve or three hundred people in one round.

During the same time, many wives, maidens, and other noble and ignoble women were sent from Stockholm to Denmark, where it could be noted that they had had some kind of affair with Swedish lords, and they were imprisoned there. The most famous of them was Mrs. Christina, Herr Sten Sture's widow, and her daughter, Maiden Magdalena, who died in Copenhagen Tower. Mrs. Cecilia, Mr. Eric Johansson's widow, with her two daughters, maiden Emerentia and maiden Märeta, who also all three died in the same tower. But one of her daughters, wife Margareta, Joachim Brahe's widow, was held prisoner at Nyköping Castle. Even Mrs. Birgitta, Mr. Eric Nielson's widow, was sometimes sent there.

In October, Herr Gustaf built a camp south of Stockholm in Botkyrka parish, near a village called Sätra, and another at Glia on Lovön, where Peter Friday was courtier, apart from the camp he had at Rotebro, to prevent the enemies from advancing and harming themselves.

In November, Herr Gustaf Knut Anderson and Staffan Sasse as courtiers for the people at Rotebro. But he sent Lasse Ericson as Bailiff over Dalarna and Bergslagen. Shortly afterwards, he also sent Lars Olofsson as bailiff over Norrbotten, with the task of guarding other areas there in Norrlanden and obtaining something that could be used to the advantage of the cause, because a lot of income was needed."

The 24th of November was the Sunday for St. Catherine's Day fixed at Turku Castle, where Jungker Thomas was master of the court. Bishop Arvid of Turku was not entirely satisfied with this order, and set up rifles, lead, gunpowder and courtiers. Someone for jewels they kicked out of the castle and some of the Swedes who were there were captured, including Niels Arffuidson's brother, Bengt Arffuidson, as well as all other Finns and Swedes, including burghers and their servants, whom Jungker Thomas could seize and who had been with the Swedes. He let them hang directly outside the wall.

On December 1st, three castles were handed over to Herr Gustaf: Stäkeborg, Nyköping and Stegelholm. On December 18, Bern von Mehlen surrendered Stäkeborg Castle. He was invited to Söderköping for two months on a passport, and then he offered his hand to Herr Gustaf and swore his allegiance. But how he would behave in the future was up to God and the righteous Christian judges.

On Christmas Eve the enemy were in two or three places wanting, and everywhere defeated. In Stockholm they wanted to try to catch Peder Friday camp at Glija on Lovön, and they said they wanted to drink Peder Fredag's Christmas beer. They set off with 40 yachts and archipelago boats but were defeated. Peder Fredag forced them back into the lake, so that they were forced to bring back a large number of dead and wounded. Afterwards showed Peter Friday up an intelligent and wise strategy. He had placed about 14 or 16 men on mountains and in forests around, where they had wind instruments with them, and also some horn players where he was.

When the enemies had now gone ashore and peopled the next area from the ships, he commanded them to blow up as if he himself had done it, and presently all the others began to blow (as had been previously determined) far away round about. The enemies were frightened and thought that a large number of people were there where they heard the horns. At the same time beat Peter Friday to them with all the people he had (which could be about 450), with which he defeated the enemy (which was about 1500 men). At the same time, Henric Randzau and Jens Oloffson captured Nyköping Castle and took Lasse Pederson prisoner on Mr. Gustaf's behalf.

At Stäket, Sören Norrby came back with a large and strong force (which also happened on the same Christmas Eve) and intended to besiege the castle, manned with fresh troops, not expecting it to be abandoned. Then the Swedish troops were at Etersund, where a fierce battle began early in the morning and lasted until midday, but he got across the strait. He sent Torsten Salmundson himself in a boat towards the castle, but the shot from the cannon on the castle was so fast that it hit Henrik (who had previously served Bishop Brask) and shot off his hat (which had been mounted on a spear) and through the boat.

Then Sören realized what was going on, otherwise he would have been surprised and captured by the Swedes. Then he shouted as loud as he could and said that Berend von Mehlen had betrayed the castle, which Berend certainly had not, he had only expected this reinforcement. The number of soldiers that Sören lost in the battle was about 600, whom he had laid bare on an islet without any burial mounds, and he took the dead away with him. But the Swedes had not lost more than 11 men in this battle. So Sören called out to the Swedes and thanked them for good hospitality, and further said that after he had drunk Christmas hospitality with them, he asked that they would be welcome to Kalmar and drink Easter hospitality with him.

The Swede answered and both let him accompany him home, then that was where it could be done. Sören asked what his name was. He answered Axell Rijning.. At the departure Sören invited himself everywhere to the country and thought of burning. But Arvid Västgöte followed everything, however firmly kept him away so that he could not cause any damage. When all this was arranged at the landing, Herr Gustaf demanded the greater part of the people that Arvid had used for Stäkeborg for himself in Uppland, and Arvid kept some part at his home down there, with whom he later went to Kalmar, but it did not happen until Whitsun of the following year. Those who came to Uppland sent Herr Gustaf to his lower in Stockholm. Some of them (those who were goldsmith's servants) he had come to his mint workshop, which he had then opened in Söderköping, Uppsala and Västerås.

Year 1522

In January came King Christian's letter and command to all his captains who were in Sweden, that they should have the heads of all the Swedes they could get hold of, both nobles and commoners, cut off.

As soon as Junker Thomas on Turku Castle had received such an order, he had it executed Tonne Erickson and Henrik Stenson, lawman in Närfinland, and several others in the castle, as well as his own scribe, named Måns (because he himself had had problems since he had come from Borgholm on Öland), simply because he was Swedish. But Erik Fleming had received a small hint, so he saved his life by hiding, also that he had always been against Swedes. He took with him all the Swedes who were in the castle and some others, resisted Nils Arvidsson as if he had wanted to surprise his camp, but he secretly sent one of his servants to him, and letting him understand what the purpose was, turned and put down most of those who followed him blindly and who were not Swedes. And this happened the day before Tönne was executed.

He had also advised Tönne to do the same thing, but he did not consider it necessary, nor did he believe that such a thing would happen. Therefore, he was surprised when he was captured. On the Thursday before Mary's Annunciation, January 30, Västerås Castle was taken over by Lambrecht Matson on behalf of Mr. Gustaf. Shortly afterwards, the houses Engsö and Tynnelsö castle were also taken.

At that time Herr Gustaf sent Peder Hanson from Walsta with some farmers to Småland. He had a fierce clash with the enemy at Kalmar, but neither side could say they had won or lost anything. Then Peder Hanson returned to rural Småland and met Arvid Västgöte, which happened after Easter, which will be mentioned below. But this battle in Kalmar took place in February.

In March, the Swedish troops from Rotebro moved into Yrffwa. There they were defeated twice. The first time was shortly after the statute. Then was Staffan Sasse, Peter Friday and Lille Knut Bengtsson there as courtiers. After that, Mr. Gustaf appointed Joen Olofsson at Asa and Eric Kyle as officers.

Before this happened in Uppland, Sören Norrby went from Kalmar to Denmark with quite a lot of people. He then moved to Gotland, taking with him as many people as he could get hold of. Then he went to Stockholm and reinforced the troops with healthy people who were there. When they were now reinforced, they went out in force against the Swedish troops in Yrffwa and it happened on Palm Sunday. The Swedish troops suffered great damage, lost and lost many people.

The next day they again went out to the camp that the Swedish troops had in Sätra and did the same there. So the Swedish troops could not hold any camp for a month, neither north nor south of Stockholm.

Now when Sören Norrby's people had helped them in Stockholm to break the camps (as previously mentioned), Sören quickly called them back to the ships because they no longer needed to stay there. 
He then hurried to Finland as fast as he could. Nils Arvidson and his squad immediately did what they had been tasked with at Turku Castle. The same Nils Arvidsson had a large pile of gunpowder, enough for a thin one, which was in a stone house by a northern river in Turku. He immediately lit the gunpowder on fire and the fire spread across the city, almost causing a huge fire. Nils Arvidsson himself was not a particularly skilled warrior. Since then there was no order for any castle in Finland until Herr Gustaf had come to Stockholm.

Then pulled Erik Fleming, Nils Arvidson and many more of the Finnish nobility who had been in the camp at the Janekala bridges and demanded that Nils Grabbe and some others of the Finnish nobility who were still alive be handed over to them. They wanted revenge because Sören had been chasing them for so long. But when they realized that he would not come, they had to consult for a few days. They decided to split up. Nils Grabbe stayed in Finland together with some of those who followed him. But Erik Fleming and most of the troop went over to Sweden to Mr. Gustaf.

Bishop Arvid also has to flee. Soren sent a number of men after him to capture or kill him. Therefore he fled first to Ragmo where his ship lay, and then further south to Ulvila. But as he could not feel safe anywhere on land, he was always told that the enemies were looking for him in many parishes, and therefore he considered it safest to go over to Sweden to Mr. Gustaf. During his journey across the sea he fell into a terrible storm and many women and maidens of the Finnish nobility who were with him disappeared with him, their ships, people, goods and everything else that they had with them, outside Öregrund at Wiggan.

In April, Mr. Gustaf sent a fairly large group of healthy fighting men from Dalarna, Hälsingland and other places in Norrland to Stockholm. He set up camps on both sides of the city. He placed the northern camp at Lindesund's works, where they remained despite being exposed to fierce attacks from the enemy.

At the same time, while Sören was fighting in Finland, Mr. Gustav sent his chancellery secretary Siward van Hålte from Ditmarsken to Lübeck. There he received ten warships with gunpowder and everything else needed for war, but all this was noted by the Lübecks at the most expensive cost. However, Mr. Gustaf paid everything honestly, which is also noted.

The admiral on the ship was Fredrik Brauns and the commander of the men-of-war on the same ship was Hans Stamell. In addition, there were 900 ensign jacks on the ship, with Jachim Komiken as commander. The ship arrived in Söderköping on Whitsunday. The soldiers on board would not swear allegiance or take orders until they had personally seen and spoken to the master they were to serve, although Berend von Mehlen or others required it. Therefore, Mr. Gustaf had to rush to Söderköping from Uppsala day and night to meet them. But as soon as they saw him they said they were ready to risk both life and blood for his sake and swore their oath and loyalty to him.

Along with this fleet also came many German horsemen, including Peter Patijn, Theus Patijn, Joachim Fyhregger, Johan Skermer and many others, some of whom had 10 horses and others more. Herr Gustaf adopted them all into his service at the same time, making his army much stronger. He also sent a mighty 500 soldiers strong to Arvika and Peder Hanson to reinforce their strength, so that they could be powerful enough to take Kalmar.

But he sent all the other German men-of-war south towards Stockholm, with which he manned his garrisons so that he then did not have to use the peasants in any war. So then the peasants were left to themselves, which they had now long and often with great cry and complaint requested, to be allowed to stay at home at their farms and buildings, cultivate the fields and meadows, and everything else that their calling required, so that they would to be able to do their duty with taxes and levies where it was necessary to be able to wage their own war, etc. This happened at the time of St. John the Baptist's day (when Mr. Gustaf had his largest garrison in Grunsta or Vidlunda) that the peasants were completely liberated. But Mr. Gustaf kept in his service in his payment most of all unmarried and unmarried men.

This situation of the time gave Herr Gustaf no small anxiety and worry, first about the difficult foreign and domestic war people he now had in the kingdom, how they would govern the kingdom to advantage, how they would be properly paid to achieve peace, and also how we Swedes would make some friends in foreign countries. For King Christian had not only by treachery and falsehood subdued the kingdom of Sweden, but had also deprived the Swedes of all honorable intentions and promises from all potentates, emperors, kings, princes, cities and nations, through which he had received much help (even in the war he brought against the Swedes earlier, in the year 1520) by Emperor Charles, King Francis of France, the King of England, the King of Scotland, as well as by many Electors, Princes and other lords in Germany. Here with his people in the train to Sweden was a troop of 1,400 French foot soldiers, which King Christian would never have received (as the King of France apparently later admitted to King Gustav's envoy) if he had not claimed that the kingdom of Sweden had apostatized from Christianity.

So, too, he has doubtless reproduced all the truths about the Swedes to other potentates and princes, from whom he had received such intelligence. Here was also a Phoenician Scot in his troop, besides the great German men-of-war. With his own ability and Denmark's power, his squad had not gotten that far into Sweden. This and other worries weighed heavily on Herr Gustaf, who was also powerless. He considered how he might bring the good lords and potentates to another view which might more nearly conform to the truths.

After Herr Gustaf had now taken so many castles and strongholds in the kingdom, and not received much help, just as King Christian had great power both on land and water, there was great risk that he would come to his aid first, to which his great support from high potentates would be to his advantage. But to separate him from some of them (which was necessary) he thought there could be nothing more appropriate than to simply reveal the truth about the terms and conditions by which King Christian got into Sweden, with strong seals, letters, horrible oaths , obligations, intrigues, before the Swedes grabbed him and conquered the kingdom and finally Stockholm's heart. How it was promised that all should be an agreed thing, and all that had been done against him in his time, the time of his grandfather, and the time of his great-grandfather, would strengthen him, and add that this and much else which his letter contained, that all would be held firm and inviolable , he took the sacrament on it. Likewise to reveal to the highly endowed potentates and lords how much hideous and innocent blood he shed there over so tyrannical and unchristian Sweden, sparing neither spiritual persons nor worldly.

For the sake of these things he wrote down all of them and each particular one here, and he also wrote to the Pope and exhorted the canons of Skara and Strängnäs to do the same. The Pope was informed how their bishops Vincentius and Mattias had been innocently beheaded and burned, and how two tyrants had entered their dwellings, Billenacke in Strängnäs and Master Dyrick in Skara. They asked the Pope to approve what they had now done, namely to elect Master Måns Haraldi in Skara and Master Måns Sommar in Strängnäs. This letter brought Måns Månsson to Rome and he came back with a positive answer. Because of this, the following year the Pope sent his legate, Doctor Jens Gotus, to the country to investigate the matter further.

Master Canutus, dean of Västerås, had postulated with the canons in Uppsala and wanted to be elected archbishop, but because of his arrogance he was rejected by Herr Gustaf. The same thing happened with Herr Peder Jacobi, who was elected bishop in Västerås, and with Master Eric, who was previously dean in Linköping and then elected bishop in Turku. The same thing later happened with Dr. Joanne Goto, who was elected bishop in Uppsala, but was deposed for the same reason.

Mr. Peder Jacobi had recently returned to the country from Denmark. Two years ago he had sent a lot of money and himself to King Kristian on Öland to seek help from Lady Christina and her followers. But the Swedish people received no help from him, although they expected and expected it, nor did they know what had become of his money and himself. Later, Herr Peder, who was also called Sunnanväder, made a big rebellion against Herr Gustaf, which will be discussed more in the future.

It was pretty miserable here in Sweden at the time (as you can understand from the previously described). The members of the realm both in the worldly and spiritual estates had all been mutilated, the nobility as previously mentioned were largely betrayed and defeated by the enemy. Some of those who lived dared not do anything but join the enemy. The same applied to the spiritual estate.

Archbishop Gustav was now more a traitor to the Swedes than any of the enemies. Bishop Brask in Linköping was not much better, and Bishop Otto in Västerås was not a very good Swede either. He had made young Mr. Sten a lot of opposition and oppression, but the enemies still didn't believe much in him. Therefore Master Didrick took him with him from the bishopric (when Herr Gustaf first defeated the enemies at Västerås) and brought him to Stockholm, where he then died in prison after a year and a half. The pious bishops of Skara, Strängnäs and Turku had been hanged. Therefore Herr Gustafs was not a little concerned, apart from much else, about how he could re-establish these dioceses with capable and faithful people.

Among other foreign lords and cities, Herr Gustaf had written at that time about help and assistance. Also the highborn first Duke Frederick of Holstein and the city Lübeck had helped. Therefore, quite a lot of German fighting men came to the kingdom from time to time. Two powerful councilors from Lübeck also came here, so-called Herr Bärnt Bomhöuwer and Herr Herman Plönnies. They brought with them a lot of war equipment, horses, weapons and other things that belong to war trade.

Now when Sören Norrby had been in Finland as previously mentioned, he had looted Junker Thomas's house and acquired the most valuable property he could get in all of Finland. He then set off immediately for Stockholm, knowing that at that time there was a great shortage of valuable objects there.

In June, Junker Thomas sailed from Finland with a large fleet of ships laden with fetaliers, having among them some warships. When he now arrived at Furusund, Herr Gustaf's ship was there for him, on which Erik Fleming as a general. They lay still behind a promontory until a sailing vessel came towards them, which Junker Thomas had sent to ascertain whether it was safe to sail on.

But the Swedes learned of this by a hasty surprise and captured them. They manned the sailing ship with their own people and let it run back towards the fleet. When Junker Thomas saw this, he gave up and allowed himself to be taken to the Swedish fleet. Then all the Swedish ships docked at the Finnish fleet and took everything they had, including a lot of goods and cargo. But a large warship was also there, called the Finnish prijss, which defended itself manfully all day and evening. When the Swedes realized that they could not take it any other way, they set fire to it with goods and people on board. Junker Thomas was brought to Herr Gustaf and asked that his life be spared, as he had not acted too tyrannically towards the Swedes. But Herr Gustaf replied that God's just judgment had befallen him and that he would pay for his tyrannical heart which he had shown against the Swedes.

Herr Gustaf had him taken imprisoned from Uppsala to Tynnelsjö, where he was hanged on an oak with a bast rope. He regretted and grumbled that he didn't get a hemp thread instead.

In November came Soren Norby towards Stockholm with five ships. There were also fifteen Livonian ships on Herr Gustaf's side, but they did not want to go into battle with Sören. He put into port on an island. That same night there was such a strong frost that you could ride to his ship on horseback. If Gustaf had had as many Swedish men of war as he had German, then Sören would have been captured that time.

Erik Fleming and the other Swedes, along with Staffan Sasse and some other Germans who were with him, were eager to immediately go over to Soren with all their mighty force. They found a spot on a hill beside the ships where they could greet him with flails down on the ships and some straight chest ganging against the ships, so that they would have had a good chance to strike if the will had been good and faithful. But the Germans did not want to continue but said they wanted to continue consulting.

The bailiff then led the German jacks, Hans Stamell and two commanders, towards Sören's ship, where they met Thile Gisle, who was riding himself. What was said there could easily be understood by what happened later. When Hans Stameell returned, he spoke to the German war people about Sören and said:"If we now attack and defeat him, it will be our own loss, because then we will have no master left and our war will then be without an anchor". This Swedish gentleman is no longer of any use to us.

But on the contrary it was held and coming from here the war will be delayed and our payment will be spent in vain. This treacherous act then immediately became known to Herr Gustaf, but what he thought of it, any reasonable person can imagine.

The next day, time passed immediately and he went up to a mountain promontory so that he could see Sören's ship. On the same day a strong westerly storm broke out, which immediately carried away all the ice, so that Sören's ships became loose. Then Mr. Gustaf sent word to the German men-of-war on the ships that were there and admonished them on their oath, honor and honesty to try to search for the enemy. When Sören saw this, he steered the ship out of the fairway with all his might and tried to get to an islet that was high up in the wind.

But when Herr Gustaf saw his intention, that every time he brought the ship in by the islet and fired his shots from there he would have been able to shoot the others out of the way, he sent another message to the German ships that they should quickly come up and take the same islet if they didn't want to get into a big accident. But as he also saw that there were so few defenders there and they were quite unwilling to make haste, he called to him all the Swedish courtiers who were there and as many Germans as would follow him, and took a fleet of boats to the same islet and captured it, without having with him any larger firearms than a few falconettes and a large quantity of shotguns, but he made Sören give up, so that he could not get the ship into the islet. Then Mr. Gustaf himself called out to Sören, still lying in the ground, and said that he would prepare for a visit.

Sören immediately recognized his voice and answered and said: "Is it Gustaf who is there?" and at the same time he fired as soon as he heard the sound with two half-shots. But (thank God) no harm came from it. Then Herr Gustaf sent word to the Lybian ships (which were still in his service) and begged and begged that they would let him have two half-cast cannon. He would pledge them to two castles in Sweden with the finest, but he could in no way win them. What was the meaning of this, sensible people can think about.

When he had got hold of them, it was a good opportunity to send Sören from the sword. At the same time Sören escaped and went to Kalmar.

In October, Gustaf moved the camp from Widlunda to Bruma and appointed Lille Jens Pederson as chief of staff. They often tried to attack the enemy, but always kept the upper hand. Later, Herr Gustaf had to move the camp to Munckeledarna and the camp he had at Sättra south of Stockholm moved at the same time to Södermalm. He had a pontoon bridge built from Munckeledarna to Långholmen and another similar bridge between Långholmen and Södermalm so that if the enemy attacked from either side of the city, one camp could help the other and resist. By this strategy the power of the enemy was greatly weakened.

At the same time established Peter Friday a smart war plan. He discovered through intelligence that the enemy was planning to attack the camp at Södermalm with all his strength, so he took the 500 best warriors he knew of and hid in Sankta Maria Magdalena church.

When the enemy attacked and engaged the Swedish troops, he set out with his party on the enemy from behind, between them and the town. They killed the enemy on both sides so that very few survived and could return to the city. At the same time Mr. Gustaf and his followers had a pontoon bridge of strong logs built to the east of Stockholm, between Södermalm and Västerbron, and also had a strong blockade erected with armed men to prevent all possible help that the enemy could get from the lake. Thus, Stockholm was protected on all four sides and so tightly, that no one remembers or knows if anyone could previously find in any old chronicles that Stockholm was ever so tightly protected.

At the same time, Herr Gustaf had coins minted in Uppsala (except those he previously had in Västerås and Söderköping). It was a round shilling which was quite a nice and fat coin. It was first minted at one and a half öre, but then Herr Gustaf had it halved to one öre per piece. It also became much spread over the country (as no merchant could bring out goods more profitably), but as soon as the foreigners got hold of them they well understood what they were worth in grain. Therefore they immediately changed its dress and gave them a new name, calling them double shillings.

When Stockholm was now so heavily besieged on all four sides as previously mentioned, the enemy became so powerless that they never dared to attack Stockholm again. But still some Swedes sometimes fell, both courtiers and burghers, who chose to flee to the Swedes who entered the city in small boats through the barriers or through the gates and as much as they could.

But many of them were betrayed in Santa Clara monastery, which the treacherous Gorius Holst caused. He had collaborated with his wife's sister, who was an abbess, and decreed that as soon as any Swedes escaped and tried to hide for a time in the convent, she and the other nuns would give a sign to the enemy - on the day by tying a piece of white cloth in a window high up on the wall, and at night by lighting a burning lantern in the same place. As soon as the enemy saw it, they came there with a group of jackals and captured them mercilessly as if they were helpless sheep for slaughter.

This was a big reason why Mr. Gustaf, after joining the regiment, had the monastery destroyed to the ground. Junker Henrik Slaghök and Gorius Holst, who at this time were King Kristian's highest captain in Stockholm, saw that their doors were now too narrow for this fierce destruction, and they could no longer hinder Herr Gustaf's hopes or prevent him from carrying out his enterprise.

They devised some lists by which they would offer to carry their cause to some advantage. Among other things, they sent a Swedish traitor, who was specially sworn, named Joen Wästgöte, to go to Herr Gustaf's courtiers in the camp, shake hands with them and carefully observe what they confessed and what they built on. After a time he would set fire to the camp and return to the city if he could, or take the forest and surrender to King Christian of Denmark, inform him of what had happened in Sweden, and urge him to come to his rescue.

The same Joen Västgöte came to the camp to the lieutenant Lille Jens Pederson, shook hands with him, was approved and could think of nothing else but that he should be honest in his dealings, he was trusted for the guard and other things. There are people who can discern what a traitor has in his heart. But a few days later two other Swedish traitors, Eleff Monsson and Tord Bagge, fell out, and they taught the lieutenant Jens Pederson what this Joen Västgöte had been sent for, and presented him with proof that Joen Västgöte had sewn a banner on his trousers, on which Henrik Slaghök and Gorius Holst had written their names to show King Christian. Therefore, the same traitor was immediately executed.

So Herr Gustaf carried out all the orders during the winter for the fixed cities and castles which he had not yet conquered, especially for Kalmar and Stockholm, etc. He staffed the camps with as many people as was needed, both from his own Swedish war people and from the German war people. And the German men-of-war who were there (mostly on horseback) he redeployed in the cities.

The Lybian councilors provided him with a camp in Uppsala together with the largest group of German horsemen, who lay there over the winter without the opportunity to accomplish anything. But their payment still went through every day. At the same time, they gathered all the people in Stockholm who could not defend themselves or be useful in any way, such as old priests, monks, doctors, burghers, maids and boys, as well as prostitutes and all kinds of loose figures. This was done due to lack of supply.


Gustaf Vasa as AI generated image

In 1523, Herr Gustaf sent Lars Siggesson with a good group of warriors to Norway (among them was a group of phoenix-jacks, half Swedes and half Germans, for whom Henrick van Cöllen was a lieutenant) to harm King Kristian's people and take in some stretches of land about they could, especially the stretch of land called Wijken, which had previously been under Swedish rule, which is also specially mentioned in King Carl's chronicle. They captured Wijken and the people went over to Herr Gustaf's side. They also manned the castle of Karsborg and put Jacob Crumme there as butler, and then they returned to Sweden.

Before this, Herr Gustaf requested that the German horsemen that he had in the towns of Sweden, as mentioned above (and which formed quite a large group), should also do something for the sake of things and not only lie in the way, but go into Scania and Halland to bring in some income. They moved out but returned after six weeks, claiming that they had been hindered by a lot of water and could not enter Skåne. But it is difficult to determine the truth about this.

Also during the time at Easter did Soren Norby (who was a man of great influence in Kalmar), that he would prepare with all his might to hinder Herr Gustaf's camp in both Stockholm and Kalmar, and to render Kristian Tyrann's soldiers useless. But he later received another message, that this was not true in Denmark, which he received at the same time from the letters of the Danish lords and the council, about how the tyrannical Christian acted in Denmark. His actions in Sweden and with evil people resulted in the same way he had previously operated here in Sweden, which was to murder and slaughter people without justice and law.

He urged that the same should continue in Denmark, especially with the nobility. He was so self-righteous that he could not take advice from anyone other than the wicked and wicked sorceress Sigbritt (Sibret) and her daughter Dyveke (Döfjukke), whom he had as a mistress. Because of this event (but through God's vengeance and providence), the Danish nobility rallied and overthrew him, proclaiming the high-born First Duke Frederick of Holstein as King of Denmark.

Now when such letters and news came to Sören about this, he took all his people with him to Denmark and left only 60 German jacks in Kalmar. He ordered half of them to guard the city and half the castle, alternating every eighth day. He also ordered that if for any reason any of them could not fulfill their mission, or if the Swedes became too strong, they should annihilate all the Swedes in Kalmar and take all the goods and property that were there and burn the town and castle and then go to Visby .

When the citizens found out about this, they sent a secret messenger to the Swedish troops, Herman Steinhuggare, asking them to attack the city on the night after the fourth day of Pentecost. The gate of the northern city was to be open to them, and it was. Arvid Västgöte and Peder Hanson also arrived with their troops and attacked the city from the west and south, as if they had stormed the southern gate. No one knew about the 30 German Jacks remaining in the city until Gustaf's entire army had entered through the northern gate and captured the 30 German Jacks and opened all the gates. They then captured the castle eight days later, as they lacked supplies.

At the same time, Christian II's army began to besiege Stockholm because they were short of supplies, especially stores. But they negotiated for a month with Gustaf about the conditions under which he would give up Stockholm city and castle, because he did not want to give them up without further ado.

Gustaf Vasa is elected as king

After the days of Pentecost, all the houses of the Riksdag gathered and requested a Riksdag, which was to be held on the day of Pentecost in Strängnäs. But the city was not sufficiently built after it was burned down three years ago. There, a Latin speech was given by the dean of Västerås, Master Knut, which was about the Swedes should crown a king to show that this powerful and famous kingdom would no longer be considered a barn or a church that lacked defense.

Around the same time, propaganda writings about Gustaf Vasa and Kristian were spread. Read a probable propaganda writing which I am working on translating where I think we have one of the first images of Gustaf Vasa.

After they had now perceived and seen with their eyes, what gifts, what happiness, understanding and wisdom the Almighty God had given this noble lord Gustaf, the courtier of the Reich, there could be no one similar, suitable and better for this office, especially since he was also of the honorable line of the old Gothic and Swedish kings.

Therefore all the Estates of the Realm finally fell upon their knees, and with many tears they emphatically requested that he should take upon himself this burden and obligation together with the name and majesty of the kings, and be gracious to them in their defense. The legate of the Pope, Johannes Magni Gotus, was also present, and made an extensive speech to the estates of the Reich, exhorting them to the same thing, and also asking that they would all together pray for the same. To this Herr Gustaf replied that he would pray for them as much as they had prayed him, and that if they wanted him spared, they could choose another among the old knights or knights who were there, such as Mr. Ture Jönson, Mr. Holger Carlson, Mr. Niels Boson etcetera, because he was already tired and exhausted from such heavy work.

He also added that whoever should be chosen by the Swedish knighthood for this task, he would gladly swear his allegiance with fealty and manhood and all fidelity. But the Swedes stuck to their request, which was not advisable and had no small amount of power behind it. So he begged them to have time to consider the matter, and complied with their will, but more out of compassion and diligence for his crippled and oppressed fatherland than from any particular desire to have this honor and high position, because he had understood (as he also said) that it would have more gall with it than honey. Then all the Estates of the Riksen swore their oath according to Sweden's law book and pledged their allegiance to him with homage, fidelity and manhood with all submission and with raised hands.

He swore his oath according to customary royal homage. In the same way, he was praised and proclaimed the chosen king of Sweden and Göte in the name of the Holy Trinity. This happened on the fourth day of June. He then began to use royal titles and wrote himself as such. "Gustaf with God's grace, Sweden's and Göte's chosen king."

Soon after, King Gustaf went with his entire entourage to Strängnäs from Stockholm. For some days they traded with the city by messengers and letters, until they came to a good agreement.

On June 21, which was the third Sunday after Trinity, and also the following Sunday, for the sake of John the Baptist, they went up to Stockholm's castle and city. King Gustaf gave orders and offices in the city to his servants, whom he then sent there. He sent Peder Hård to the castle bailiff and there he handed over to Henrik Slaghök who was the castle bailiff on behalf of King Gustaf. king Gustaf then ordered that Henrik Slaghök and the others who were with him should go away with their own goods and that they should be allowed to keep ships and property. But Gorius Holst, after he and his wife had lived in Stockholm, obtained the grace and friendship of Gustaf, and he was allowed to keep all his chattels and real estate under the obligation to take no further part in any evil plans or frauds against him or the kingdom. The same Gorius did not hold this, which led him himself to ruin and corruption, as will be mentioned later (especially in the year &c 35).

On the Tuesday after St. John the Baptist's eve, King Gustaf entered Stockholm through the south gate, and was received and received with a great procession and solemn ceremonies which this affair deserved. He was greeted by the people as Sweden's first, regent, most gracious lord and king.

In the same days, shortly after, the Lybian councilors fell rather hard on the payment that the kingdom owed for ships, guns, swords, harness (armour) and other war accessories, which all, when it was valued and calculated at its most expensive, could well exceed 60 000 lybian marks. On this payment they pressed so hard that they either wanted it ready at once, or that the council of the kingdom should confirm their terms in the kingdom, though intolerable to many of the cities of the kingdom to their great detriment. But the council of the kingdom had no choice but to follow their will and give them the letters and seals they requested. But a Finnish nobleman, who was also one of the council of the kingdom, named Knut Ericson to Lauko, absolutely did not want to approve it, saying that he well understood what would follow. Which also actually happened. When the same payment had been paid to the last penny, the Lybians demanded even harsher terms, leading to an open feud between them and King Gustaf. Which will be mentioned further in 34.

Moreover, King Gustaf had no small trouble to be able to make the German men-of-war satisfied with their payment and also to be able to get rid of a part of them. Here was so much confined in the realm both of good and evil, even more than he had ever asked for or needed, and the chests were almost empty where he could pay them. But he would not settle for a little, nor accept cuts that were really necessary in the kingdom, so he had to borrow from merchants and miners, from churches, monasteries, and wherever there was something to borrow. He wrote to them kindly (and repeatedly begged) that they would do well and come to his aid wherever they were. He also asked to see the precious stones which they themselves had, and which they could best dispense with, that he might speedily have good coins minted. Which also happened. Then he inspected the people and paid them. He gave most of them passports and let them wander around the kingdom”

But the German people had again (most of which were quite capable people) together with the Swedish military people, the Finnish nobility, Erick Fläming, Jffuar Fläming &c and all the Finnish courtiers had sent King Gustaf against Michelsmässan the following year, well deprived of both water and land, both on horseback and on foot across to Finland. They first docked at Kusta castle, shelled and stormed it so that none of the Swedes had a finger wounded, and did not lie there more than a day. Then was drawn to Turku, where some of King Christian's people were already located, they had their castle in Turku city.

These tried to meet the Swedes at Kuppisala. But when they found out through intelligence that the Swedes were superior, they fled through Tavastland and ate Viborg. After that, the Swedes stayed for a while in the city until they could get into the castle, which happened 12 days later. Then they split up to occupy the other castles in the country, some went to Tavastehus, some to Raseborg, some to Nyslott and some to Viborg. For this troop, Niels Grabbe was the commander. But Roland, who held the castle of Viborg, did not hand over the castle to Grabben, but demanded that Erik Fleming would come quickly to hand it over on King Gustaf's behalf. Which also happened a few days later when Erik Fleming personally appeared. And quickly afterwards the Swedes had conquered the whole country, with every castle and fortress that existed on behalf of their master, King Gustaf.

That same winter, the king sent Gustaf's envoy to Basilius the Grand Duke in Russia about peace and friendly neighborliness. The envoys included Erick Fläming, Björn Claeson, Herr Anders Sysleman kanick in Turku and some other members of the nobility. They made peace with the prince of Russia some years ago.

Among other troubles and hardships that King Gustaf had at that time, he received a letter that his bailiffs had received. The letter had been written by Herr Peder Sunnanväder (who the year before with His Majesty's consent had been appointed bishop of the canons in Västerås), and it was very insulting, shameful and full of ridiculous accusations which made the king very angry. Therefore, King Gustaf went to the Moremässan in Västerås. On the Sunday after, he took with him the council of the city and many others who were present, and going into the chapel where all the bishops and the said bishop had assembled, showed him his unwarranted letter. Therefore, Herr Peder Sunnanväder could not escape the prosecution for crimes against his majesty, that is, treason.

But King Gustaf was so merciful that he did not punish him with death, but only removed him from office and the bishopric. But Master Knut, the presbyter, was too severe in his judgment, and from this King Gustav could see that there was a secret alliance against him between them. Therefore he dismissed him from his position, and when the canons complained that they did not have enough suitable persons to choose for bishop, King Gustav advised them to choose a learned man, Petrus Magnus, who was then in Rome and had previously been sent there from Vadstena monastery to Saint Birgitta's defense. And so it happened, they wrote both to him and to the Pope about it.

In October, the Pope's legate Johannes Gotus (about whom it has been said before) began to carefully investigate the affair between King Christian and Archbishop Gustav, for what reason he had had the bishops beheaded in Sweden, and how Archbishop Gustav had behaved here in his fatherland.

He was respected by King Gustav. And when he had understood everything how much bloodshed Archbishop Gustav had accomplished during both Mr. Sten's and King Christian's time, he condemned Archbishop Gustav by the Pope's authority from the archbishop's seat and dignity and that he would never ever return there again, about which he immediately wrote to the pope.

He himself had also immediately withdrawn to Rome and announced all these insidious actions, but King Gustav had previously asked the canons in Uppsala to come to Stockholm and elect him archbishop, which also happened on Saint Clement's day.

So King Gustav prescribed a thing to be held at the next Christmas in Västervik. All the national parliaments gathered there and discussed important and pressing national board issues, including complaints. After the copper coinage had been clipped in Denmark during the summer, Danish merchants had tried to quickly debase Sweden's population by introducing a large amount of clipped coinage, buying up goods, clothing and anything else they could find. The said thing was not held until after Epiphany, and the shearing ceased for these reasons.


In 1524, King Fredrik had asked King Gustav for help with ships to retake Bornholm. Therefore, King Gustav sent him 17 ships with good men of war, equipment and all military authority, there sir Berend von Mehlen was a chieftain.

In the same year as Berend von Mehlen had been freed from the marriage with the foremost nobility, the survivor of Mrs. Margreta Eric Knutsson, Mrs. Anne's daughter at Winstrup, he and his men Weldelia besieged the castle and demanded to storm it. They took both the castle and the land into King Frederick's service, but Berend von Mehlen and several of his men were all Lybian residents. Therefore, he appointed them as generals when he retreated, because they shared his will and made it impossible for King Frederick or the Danish troops to take control of the area. But the truth behind this fake stamp was revealed at the Riksdag held the following year in Malmö.

At the same time and in the previous year held Soren Norby themselves on Gotland without having any relations with either Denmark or Sweden. He wrote down his desire to be God's friend before God and all the enemies of the world. But one can understand, after calling himself God's friend, that he had devoted himself to God's commandment, which says: "Thou shalt love thy neighbor as thyself." He had his own coin minted at Visby, which was a rather poor coin that only benefited the buyer, but it was round and called shillings. On one side of the coin he had his own coat of arms, on the other side the coat of arms of Gotland, namely a daffodil with a banner. He let it circulate as a clipping for 18 pennies, where 8 made a Danish mark and so on.

Having a great fleet, boats, and many soldiers who were most active at sea, he used all his power to capture all the merchant ships he could ever find, saying it was his health to disturb and take from the chests of the merchants.

Therefore, he immediately sailed across the entire Baltic without caring which city was his hometown. He was fond of trading with the Lybian merchants, and did not spare those from the Western Sea either, whether they were from Westphalia, Holland, Scotland, England, or any other country. He brought all the goods to Visby and gave half to his warriors as a reward and kept the other half for himself. Visby city was filled with trade goods such as clothes, spices, wine and other luxury goods, and the ships were filled to the brim.

But when he returned the goods to the merchants who had lost them and asked them to return with more goods, the Lybian merchants did not dare to go against him with war.

They instead tried to find a solution with King Gustaf. They sent their envoy Herman Israel to him with credit and instructions that legates belonged to. He came to King Gustaf and did his best to solve the problem. After that it was generally known that Gotland, since it was first possessed by the people, had been under the crown of Sweden, and therefore the king of Gustaf should not allow it to be under any other crown than that of Sweden or Denmark.

The Lybian merchants had requested that King Frederik of Denmark intervene and stop Sören's plundering, so King Frederik immediately wrote to Sören, asking him to be quiet and to refrain from unethical and rude actions. But Sören ignored the king's request and continued with his plunder and trade without regard to the king's orders. Therefore, Herman Israell considered that it was now King Gustaf's responsibility to take Gotland back under the crown of Sweden with the sword.

King Gustaf replied that this matter was not easy to grasp at that time, because of four special reasons. First, he was now an impoverished lord and had nothing in the treasury, so it did not seem wise or good to pursue Gotland so eagerly, for he might lose Sweden again. Secondly, he was in a difficult financial situation, as he owed large sums to the Kingdom of Lybia. Therefore it did not seem proper to start any new war until all such honest payments had been made. Thirdly, if at that time he should begin the same war, it would cause ill-will and enmity between Denmark and Sweden again, as the Danes now had possession of Gotland. Fourthly, it could happen that Denmark then kept Gotland even longer, and then he would have to repay his war expenses.

To this Herman Israel replied in the same way regarding the first and second points. If His Royal Highness wished to continue with the Gotland War, the Lübskas would gladly stand for the debt they owed him, which had been going on for many years, without any interest or repayment. Third, he said that a deal had already been discussed between Lübeck and King Fredrik, that if King Gustaf wanted to ask for King Fredrik's daughter as a bride, King Fredrik would give Gotland back to Sweden's crown as a bride tax. Fourthly, if it happened that the Danes should keep Gotland, King Gustaf would get back half of his war expenses and Lübeck would pay the other half, so that finally would Soren Norby get rid of Gotland, as he had caused too much damage. First of all, because he was loyal to no king's side, nor did he want to obey any king. Secondly, that he so dishonorably attacked innocent people and plundered their property.

He had his own coin minted in Visby, as if he had been a first man, without any royal or princely permission, permission or memory, etc. Then King Gustaf replied that if such conditions and demands were to be established, he would do his best in the matter . But it is (said he) such a dangerous and treacherous world that letters, seals, promises, and oaths no longer apply except to what the people see advantageous to themselves. Then Herman Israel asked for his reputation and swore by all that was holy that what he had said had been commanded him by his superiors and lords. And if in the future there should be any breach in any agreement, he would surrender himself and become King Gustaf's prisoner. Then the king said he would think about the matter for a few days. Many of King Gustaf's advisors, including Peder Hård, Master Laurentius Andreæ who was then chancellor and many others, advised him to fight to regain Gotland under the crown of Sweden, whatever the cost. And though he hesitated and suffered sorrow in his heart, and would not accept it, they used a way of persuading him by praising the old Mr. Sten Sture for his great virtues and especially because he was never afraid.

Then King Gustaf said that he had never been unreasonably afraid either, but he had in his mind that this enterprise would never have a good end, but would lead to damage and destruction, sorrow and expense, which would not benefit or benefit Sweden's crown some way. But at last, after they had strongly agreed with him, he thought it better to force and compel him than to do nothing. It was decided that King Gustaf would start the war without hindrance. He had acquired a good amount of silver, silver plates, mugs, dishes and many other silver cutlery, which did not suit a royal estate. But now (strangely enough) he had to have most of it broken up and sent to the mint, and he had all his good white bread minted round the clock.

Call together the best warriors from both Finland and Sweden, up to 8,000 strong. Had the best ships brought thither, and expected the best of their skill and all other paraphernalia of war. Set sir Berend von Mehlen as a general.

On the 8th of May they left Stockholm, and on the 19th of the same month they went ashore, conquering the whole country except the city and the castle. When the towns on the Baltic Sea heard that King Gustaf's people had captured Visby both by water and land, they were very happy and offered various delicacies, wine and expensive drinks. Every day there was a big market in the camp. But they gave up the good rolls, because they didn't have much money.

During the first two months, the general showed himself to be very honest, defending himself against the enemies every day and showing them a good will to fight. But after a while it changed Berend von Mehlen his attitude, without anyone knowing why. Some thought his wife had something to do with it, as the change happened just as she had come to him.

Then set Berend von Mehlen daily together with Sören Norby, went into his village, drank and ate with him, became his godfather and raised his harlot children, while they talked a lot and not always in the best way for his master, King Gustaf, or the Swedes. Shortly after leaving the city, he broke the truce with Sören before giving the Swedes any warning. Since some of them were drunk and the rest were confused, Sören's people had caused them considerable damage before they could even get up.”””

So that the Swedes could clearly see that Berend von Mehlen rather sought to harm King Gustaf's people than to benefit them. The Swedes probably grumbled secretly among themselves about this treacherous act. They were also cunningly prevented from writing to King Gustaf about this, by Sören not wanting to give them both the castle and the city, but delaying it until he and Berend could agree on the terms of the surrender.

But what can be said about this except that experience showed that this was only a deceitful delay? The Swedes would put nothing but scorn, injury and misery on the side of the road, just as it happened 76 years ago with King Karl's people who were going to take Gotland, who also had traitors as chieftains. This happened when it was the year 1448.

During the time that this was delayed, the Danish had secret emissaries to Sören that he would absolutely not let the Swedes get Visby castle and town in their hands, but instead keep it at a distance until the Danish lords could come with strong-willed hands and take over. He was promised whole mountains of gold in Denmark, that he would prove himself willing and faithful towards them and his fatherland, which Sören was not unwilling to do.

In October the Danish lords came, behaved as if their hearts and intentions were perfectly clear and friendly towards the Swedes, often flattered them for butter, and said that the Swedes had committed a trespass by carrying out acts of war on Gotland, after it had concluded a lasting peace and alliance between Denmark and Sweden. Therefore, the Swedes would withdraw this time. But they were promised that that year a parliament would be held in Denmark, where King Frederick and King

Gustaf, together with the councils of both kingdoms and also the Lybian lords, would gather to investigate and decide the matter of Gotland's rightful belonging.

Soren, who was a Dane, surrendered his property in Visby and his property on land to his ship and sailed to Denmark, hoping to become a great and powerful lord. But things went badly for him. King Frederik could not bear him and offered him very slight and contemptuous treatment. Soren tried other tricks, but found it even more difficult as he had broken with the Danes, the Swedes, and all the German cities, and was now everywhere an outcast and a hunted man. He decided to sail to Rijsseländ, but before he reached the land he lost many of his best ships with goods and everything else on board. This was a common occurrence, evil pursued him. He abandoned his ship and people at Rijsseländ and himself went up to Moscow to the Great Prince. But even there it didn't go as well as he had imagined. He could never have got away again if he had not written to the king.

Kristian intended to acquire business from Emperor Karl, and asked to write to the Russian prince and to have the gift untied so that it could come to him. Emperor Charles wrote to the Grand Duke and asked him to release it, and also gave Soren his own passport so that he could travel freely and unharmed through Germany and come to him. Sören spent half a year in Russia and then received permission from the Grand Duke to return to the Emperor according to his writing. But when he came to the Emperor, his pocket was not as heavy as when he left Visby. He served the emperor as a passenger for a year and was finally killed during an attack on the city of Florence.

King Gustav's people, who had lain for Visby all summer, retreated to Sweden with great plunder. They had received no additional payment because the summer had passed and they were no longer on duty. But Berend von Mehlen, who thought evil and had a bad conscience, did not return to King Gustav but went to Kalmar where he had received a fief from King Gustav. King Gustav often wrote to him and asked him to come back and report on what had happened on Gotland, but he did not want to come back and instead began to strengthen his position in Kalmar. Everyone could see that he was planning something malicious.

It was best for King Gustav to recover his ships and soldiers unharmed from Gotland, including most of the prisoners of war. He sent all the jacks to parishes and burghers all over the kingdom, including Kalmar and Öland. In this year during the summer came Count Johan of Hoya to the country.

Year 1525

Here Peder Sunnanväder and Master Knut, of whom here before mentioned, whom King Gustaf had removed from their offices for their haughtiness and rigidity, began to slander the king, but he had pardoned them, saying that they would do him no harm, only that they would accept a lower position than they had aspired to. Which they absolutely did not want, but shortly after the thirteenth day of Christmas they went to the valleys and made a mock demonstration there against King Gustaf. They had their camp in a few coves at Herr Jacob's house in Mora, acted with all diligence against the Dalmatians, incited them against King Gustaf to drive him out of the kingdom. But God arranged it so that their treachery came back against themselves. When they understood that King Gustaf had more support among some of the Dalmatians than they had themselves, they fled with Mr. Jacob i Mora and several of their followers to Norway.

And some went to Archbishop Olof in Trondheim and some to Miss Ingegärd at Nidälv, claiming that King Gustaf had driven them out because of Luther's teachings*.

In February, King Gustaf gave Niels Ericsson, son of Herr Eric Turson, full power and command over Kalmar Castle and counties, that he should take control and allow himself to be provided with seals and letters. He went there, came to Kalmar, had his letter read at the council house, asked to meet Berend van Mehlen at the castle and find out what he was going to do. But Berend said no, he did not want to see him in time, but asked him to come to the castle and understand what the letter meant. When Niels Ericson had taken some assurances that he would be allowed to come and go freely, he went up to the castle.

Berend behaved lively and humble, hearing with great reverence the king's letter, who prepared for him a grand feast the next day. He wanted Nils Ericsson to understand that everything was in his favor and that Berend's heart was open to him. But he got to experience something else before midnight. Berend offered Niels and his servants German beer and other strong drinks until they were drunk and when they could no longer contain themselves, he led them back to their lodgings in the castle. But Berend, realizing that Niels had better sleep well, watched over them and woke them from a nightmare. Suddenly a hundred men came and knocked on the door. But Niels's host was so pious that he stood up with his servants and attendants and held them off with whips and whatever they could get their hands on, until they succeeded in waking up Niels Ericson and his party.

The host had 400 pages of pork thrown down in front of the door, so that all Berend's company shot through the door and nothing but pork was taken. So they spent the whole night and Berend returned to the castle. But Niels Ericson did not forget what to do with his party and servants (at whom he laughed). The next morning, after opening the gate, he hurried off to the king and told how his journey had gone in Kalmar. The king was very sorry that he should now think of fighting against his own servant, to whom he had entrusted the castle and the county, and whom he had also sent before all the Swedes and appointed commander of all his men of war in Gotland. If he had given this task to a Swede of high rank, things would have gone better and Gotland would certainly have belonged to the crown of Sweden at the same time.

At this time there came to King Gustaf a letter from the presence of King Fredrik with a very friendly letter asking for further peace and asking him to attend the Lord's Day which was to be held in Malmö the coming summer together with his beloved councils. He also wanted him to have hostages for him to bring into the country, whoever he asked for. At the same time, the Livonian lords also arrived. It was expected that with God's help, they would be able to solve all the problems in a good way for a good ending and long lasting peace.

Towards the spring where next after called Berend von Mehlen to Kalmar all the jackals that King Gustaf had placed in prison camps in Småland, Öland and all over Kalmar county, both German and Swedish, and took an oath and obligation from them that they would obey and stand by him. And as rough, unintelligent and downright senseless as these jackasses were they did it, without even thinking about who their real master was, what salary they would get or who had given them their powers. He also wanted the townspeople to make a similar commitment, but they were too wise to do it for him.

Then negotiated Berend von Mehlen with the soldiers and said that Kalmar would belong to him forever, it was a gift from the king and the Riksdag to him and his wife. But this was far from the truth. He asked them all to keep the castle for him and not reveal anything to anyone, not even King Gustaf or anyone else until he returned from his trip to Germany. And they did. Bern took his wife and all his best jewels, gold, silver, jewelry, money or whatever and went to Germany, hoping that one of King Christian's followers would be able to help him keep control of the castle.

Christian belonged. When the grant did not want to go as he had intended, he went to the German lords, Duke Albrecht of Mecklenburg and others, that they should enter into the matter. But the longer he sat along, the more he lost time and his allotment was reversed. Kalmar was lost to him and he, thank God, never went to Sweden again.

When now King Gustaf got this corruptible Berend von Mehlens trade in the truth sense, he considered that it was not honorable to bear a royal name on some lord's day in a foreign kingdom, and not have the whole of his own kingdom in it. He therefore made ready ships, managed and what he had, taking with him his best Swedish men of war, lying at Kalmar. The city was immediately open to him, the citizens met him with all subservient humility.

When he was now inside the city, he let his traveling party ride a lap around the whole city and past the castle, wanting to try what they up there had in mind. Berend von Mehlen had got himself an old grizzled gun and shot, everybody thought of him that he ought to go off, for he never fired many shots. As he rode, as the pack was half forward of the draft, he thought that there in the middle of the pack would be the biggest häntzen, and to adventure King Gustaf himself. He then let loose and shot Arvid Västgöte through the thigh, but thank God he was not fatally injured. He also shot three or four others in the same vicinity.

King Gustaf sent messengers to the castle and asked them if they did not want to give him their own castle, or for what reason did they want to keep it for themselves? They replied that they knew no other lord than that the castle should belong to Berend von Mehlen and him they wanted to keep belonging, because a man could live by them there.

Up there, King Gustaf had no choice but to storm. He led the redoubts between the Abbey and the Castle and shelled the castle to storm it. The Swedes stormed the first time, but not quite bravely, but when the resistance became difficult they gave up and retreated. But those who were there were completely furious, some shot, some threw stones at both women and men. When the Swedes had now awakened for the first time, King Gustaf held a short conversation with them, speaking loudly to them, saying that there was no sense in this war, and that he had no desire to be lord or courtier of such bloodthirsty warriors . He threw off his cloak, put on his armor and wanted to join the storm, saying that either he would get the Castle back or he himself would be destroyed first.

Then they fell on their knees, all the men of war, and begged him for God's sake that His Majesty would not disgrace them that he himself should personally be in some storm. They wanted to do their very best, even if they were to fall every one. He thanked them and let them continue to shell the wall and shoot away all the defenses and protective positions on the north side of the Castle. Then the Swedes stormed 'for the second time, and they were so cruel and blind that they did not spare themselves. It was a very pitiful storm. So many people fell, including the most prominent, that it is hard to describe, and the hells were even more miserable when they saw those who were there. King Gustaf cried so much that he almost fainted. Afterwards there were about 1400 dead, so that only 4 men remained, as well as 4 phoenixes of jacks, of whom only a few returned, including Peter Friday, a freak of hers who escaped everyone.”

Among others who were laid to rest were Peter Friday, Joen Pederson and many more truly free heroes and able courtiers among those who lay injured after all the storms that had happened. King Gustaf blew them back again, but they had not all survived as before, about half of them were dead, and a great number were mutilated, with an arm or a thigh-bone gone, some with both arms or both thighs gone, so that the smallest the part was undamaged. So they suffered until the evening and they could do nothing more that day.

In the morning they themselves went to the parliament and asked to hand over the castle, as they had no other option. There was no wall, no stairs, no drawbridge and not even a tower completed. They also requested some good terms. But King Gustaf would not yield to them, after they had caused him such irreparable harm. He didn't want to let them go until he had the castle and them with a powerful hand. So they had to go away on graces and disgraces. Most of them were beheaded. King Gustaf wanted to free the old gunner, but the warriors did not want that and shouted "crucifige" over him. So he had to run across the sword with the others. Such a sauna, without all other evil, had the evil traitor Berend von Mehlen achieved here in Sweden.

Then King Gustaf Arvid conquered Västgöte Kalmar Castle and county. Likewise, he would in time as much as possible reform and rebuild the castle where it had been shot to pieces. He did not stay there but went directly south to Uppland again. He received another not inconsiderable injury. The Lybian ship The Swan, in which all the best shot and voice of war were collected, struck her sails, went under all her twenty fathoms deep, and sank at once with all that was on her. The people were mostly saved. But the ship's captain knew immediately that the ship had been hit, so out of fear he went back into the sea.

All this was no small sorrow and grief. King Gustav had drawn everything in a time. At the same time the pure teaching of the holy gospel began to be brought to light and had such beginnings. An honorable and learned man named Master Olof Petri, born in Örebro and at this time canik in Strängnäs, had come home the year before from the high school in Wittenberg, where he had heard the famous holy man Doctor Martin Luther and other highly learned men in the same school, where Master Olof had been in 7 or 8 years.

First he read some passages of the Old and New Testaments to those who wanted to go through it, above all Master Laurentius Archidiakonus there, as well as some young but prebendates and choral priests. After a short time at the urging of Master Laurentius, Master Olof was appointed schoolmaster, and it then came to light even more. It got so far that King Gustaf heard some young but magnificent sermons that had been Master Olof's disciples, marveled and liked these pieces. He then asked his chancellor Master Larentz if he had heard of this doctrine and if he had any objection to it.

Then Master Larentz taught him thoroughly many passages and also how Doctor Martin Luther had begun this matter and in which case he had dealt with popes, cardinals and other great bishops, how he had shown that they could not draw a rod out of the holy scriptures, where they could prove that their great power and dominion was founded on the command of God, and many other such things.

King Gustaf had also always had his residence and knowledge in Germany, through whose letter he learned that what Master Larentz first said was true. So he learned that doctrine and grew and improved daily. He also sent out many young men to study well.

Called and some more scholars believed that if he wanted, he could plant and increase the teaching of the same God. At midsummer he went to the parliament in Malmö, was taken hostage because he had gone out of the country and took with him his chancellor Master Larentz, as well as Mr. Thure Jenson and a few more from the council. On the way he constantly reminded Mr. Thure (as he was the oldest of the knights in the realm) that he would immediately set about defending the Swedes' right to Gotland, which he also loudly and clearly did. But when they arrived, the Danes quickly found a way to stop Mr. Thure's mouth. They had secret messages for him, letting him understand that if he put himself much in the forefront he would lose all the butter tax he had collected in Norway. The thing went on, there was a lot of trading every day. Among other things, Gotland was debated. When it came to the Swedes to answer, Mr. Thure was silent, he coughed and could not get a word out. Almost none of the Swedes answered, except Chancellor Mäster Larentz and King Gustaf himself.

An old Danish knight named Mr Anders Bill stood up in the midst of all the gentlemen, and begged leave to speak a few words of truth in matters. When it had been approved by the kings and all others, he said: ""Dear kings and other good lords, I want to confess the truth. Then I must also confess that you simply do not know anything about the old things and especially not about Gotland, which you talk about so much. And you are all for the most part quite young and cannot think or know very far back. Our gracious lord King Frederick has not been in this country, but has kept to his comfortable nest in Holstein, so his grace can either know little or nothing about it. King Gustaf of Sweden cannot know much either because he is quite a young man. Therefore I must say that there are not more than two men here who really know the truth, and that is Mr. Thure and myself.

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Then King Gustaf stood up, answered him immediately in his mouth and said:What do you say, dear sir Anders Bill? And what do you want to charge me with? Isn't that an old saying? A young person can trace back as widely as an old person can think or remember?” After the same answer, the said became Mr Anders Bill so confused that he no longer had or knew what he wanted to say, etc. And when they discussed hearing something difficult about Gotland, King Frederick asked about it, but would not enter into it because (as he said) he knew little about it. And as there was not much gold to partake of in this parliament, it was ill resolved that a firm peace should be made between the kingdoms and the cities. But regarding the Gotland affair, it was nothing but treachery and fraud. It is often tried that the Danes would not let Gotland go away with any Riksdag or judgment. Therefore, it was not without the fact that it cost both effort and money what had been spent on it.

Now when the Riksdag was about to end, they decided (as the Danish and the Lybians had deliberated with each other) that Denmark would keep Gotland for a further investigation, and the Lybians would keep Borenholm, but for a convenient time, and King Gustaf would keep Wiken in Norway as well for a convenient time, until the Danes should agree to settle it again for money. This was now decided at this Riksdag. As they departed from the council, King Herman saw Israel standing there and spoke to him, asking now was all the good that he had promised him? Now where are the great claims and obligations he had sworn to? And where was the faithlessness? &c. You shall (as he said) once be ashamed of your angry treachery. And as he said that, he swung at his dart. But the chancellor, and other good men that followed him, said that no harm was done. But Herman Israel wept and complained and said that he could not counsel for the gentlemen.

With this, King Gustaf went home to Sweden again, thanking God that he had indeed come from there, because he fertilized another obstacle course. As if for their own benefit Tordd had sacrificed them at the bank of chips, here I was the hostage, because they knew well that where he had disappeared it would not have been very difficult to take Sweden back in, because there were not many here who had the desire to appear like that and defend his fatherland as he had done. And no one can know what I had when the motto happened, if the noble, high-born and virtuous Lord King Fredrik had not turned everything for good, appeasing and preventing every occasion where any feud and disagreement could arise. So he also did that he did not want to put Sweden's coat of arms, the three kroner, into Denmark's coat of arms, but contented himself with what belonged to the same coat of arms, namely three lions with other little things. Therefore, he had to be called Fredrik. His occasions and endeavors rhymed well with his name. For all his business and practice led to peace, counsel, and gladly all other lords, princes, and cities to the same &c. But King Gustaf was happy that he had come across Sweden's border again, thanked God, and promised that he never wanted to go there again except as long as he lived. Which also happened.

Before King Gustaf went down to Denmark, some scholars had come home from Wittenberg, one of them Master Michell, he appointed him vicar in Stockholm. Also became Master Olof Petri called from Strängnäs and to Stockholm, where he became the city's scribe. He preached and diligently with writing and some small books quite useful for teaching and entry into the knowledge of God's word, and had it printed. But here it happened as they say usually.

When God builds himself a church, the devil immediately builds himself a chapel next to it. Here came into the kingdom and to Stockholm an angry, confused Swedish scoundrel, a weather baptist named Melchior Buntmakare, and he had some of the same kind with him. One of them was called Knipperdölling and was a merchant. Likewise some others.

This Melchior took the church of St. John to the east and stayed there to preach, above all from the revelation of St. John. The other followers of his also preached, although they had never been properly called to the ministry.

The right preachers, Herr Olef and Herr Michel, did not oppose them but took it for granted. The people gathered like clouds in the sky, not only Germans but also others who nevertheless understood German. From their example almost every man took to preaching, furriers and shoemakers and whoever they were, all went forward as if it were valid. Some preached in the monastery of the Black Monks, and some in churches and chapels on the streets.

At last these preachers, taking upon themselves and the people with them, to prevent the war, stormed them, and cut and tore in pieces all the organ-work, pews, or whatever was outside the monasteries and churches, burned and mutilated some with noses or hands, and destroyed everything around in the squares and streets of the city. When the right preachers saw this, they were willing to resist and quell such riots. But it was in vain. There was no way they could stop it. The people were too much swarming and noisy most of the time, so that they did not know what they wanted to do, but were as if furious. The farmers all over Uppland, when they heard this, were so enraged that they almost revolted and abandoned the evangelical teaching. When

King Gustaf now came up to Stockholm, he heard and saw that things were not very good. He then called to him Herr Olof and Master Michel, the tanner also, and as many as he could get of his party, he spoke to them rather sternly and asked them if this would be any lasting and righteous religion, that they swarmed and made noise, brought the people into such a gross swarming and laughing-fest that no one could know but that they were mad or plainly possessed.

Jtem (said he) do you not know that no enterprise can be brought to any good end, but there is humility and proper conduct involved? Have you done everything right now? The peasants sit and wait, and want to carry the stake over my head. The priests made their excuse that they did not support it, but that it was very much against them, that such a thing should happen. But they couldn't completely make him feel calm, he at least gave them a chance not to resist him first. But Melchior and several of his followers caught him, would have let them go by the neck, if they had not prayed for themselves. He then expelled them from the kingdom and told them never to return. All these later came to Münster and were hanged (at the time of the great rebellion) together with Johan van Leiden.

Now when the king had clarified this in Stockholm and heard that things were quite bad in the country, as mentioned before, the peasants were angry and upset at this delusion, had an evil will against the king because he did not want to keep the service of the old God with that power which fathers and forefathers had held for them. He also did not know how to distinguish between the pure teaching of God's word and the evil-minded error that had been going on, neither of them would or could really teach it. The king had little anxiety until he could quell this. But that didn't happen until many years later. So he decided to ride through the entire kingdom and make his Eriksgata. But this journey was not completed until a year later at Easter time. He did it mostly to calm down, by conversation and personal meetings with the peasants, their rebellious mind, which had embarked on the delusion which they thought had begun in Stockholm. But it didn't help much. Because here there were so many weeds that everyone was against him.

He admonished the evangelical preachers, exhorting them to be more cautious, tactful, and humble in their affairs, not to fall harshly or hastily on any point that might give rise to outrage, nor harshly scold or dispute with either popes or bishops, for that the ignorant people would immediately be indignant and say that they were preaching a new faith. He wanted to maintain and demand the pure evangelical teachings throughout his kingdom. But his greatest pain and sorrow was that most of the preachers had not understood it properly, but were too noisy. Some blasphemed the saints, some condemned all good works without distinguishing those which were human inventions from those which God himself requires in his book. It can be said with certainty that if he had not stuck to them, evangelical teaching would have flat out died out again.

In the earlier journey or Eriksgatan, the king decided that he wanted to be in Uppsala at Christmas, and wrote to Doctor Peder Galle that he would be secretly invited to take part in a serious dispute against the Master Olof Petri on the principal articles or loci of the Scriptures where the evangelical and papal disagreed. And these were the most important: about the righteousness of men, about their free will, about the forgiveness of sins, about the invocation and worship of the saints, about purgatory, about penance after death with vigils, masses, &c, about private masses, about good deeds and merits, about the pope's and the indulgences and indulgences of the monks, on the sacraments, on the statutes of men, on excommunication, on pilgrimages to Rome, and other things. This dispute was held in Uppsala Cathedral on the second day of July. A heated debate ensued, but Master Olof mostly kept his hand, as he would not allow any evidence except that taken from the Holy Bible.


Doctor Jens Gotus, who had been elected archbishop, traveled around every winter and visited about 200 men, with a large retinue of attendants and servants. Most noble children in the kingdom were in his service as his little servants, assistants, chamberlains, etc.

And as he had not yet been consecrated and had not taken episcopal ordination, he took with him a gray monk named Vincentius, who had been appointed bishop by the pope. Vincentius performed all the duties that a bishop would have done – he baptized children, blessed altars, chalices, mass hooks and other such things, he consecrated bells, church walls, etc. Other bishops also did such things and much else that need not be mentioned here. They also forced the priests to give up everything they owned if they had accidentally fathered children with their mistresses or for other reasons.

Once when the archbishop was back from Norrland, the king called him. The king asked him what his real task was. Had not our Lord Jesus commanded his apostles or their followers to preach, teach and teach the people about the will of God, and what faith, what meaning and what thoughts they should have about God, about themselves, so that when they died they would have a clear conscience and be blessed? Doctor Jens didn't quite know how to answer the question.

The king pointed out that he had seen in the scriptures that our Lord commanded them to preach, teach and teach the people about the will of God, and what faith, what meaning and what thoughts they should have about God, about themselves, so that when they died they would have a good peace of conscience and be blessed. This was something that was also supposed to apply in other countries and nations. After all, Germans, French, Dutch and English had interpreted the Bible and many other good books, sermons and other things in their own language. But here in Sweden, there were no books in an understandable language except the Danish spring time (Worfrutiden), which was very poorly translated.

Jtem Bishops, Canons, prebendates, peasant priests, monks and the entire clergy throughout the kingdom here in Sweden were a lazy and vain group. The common people were never allowed to hear the sermon more often than the church mass. How then would they come to the knowledge of God? How then could they righteously pray and call upon God for their spiritual and temporal necessities? I firmly believe (said he) that this has been the greatest cause of the oppression and corruption which the kingdom has so often suffered during this time. Then Doctor Jens replied that they wanted to improve, and he wanted to do his part, by first interpreting the New Testament and then distributing it among all the cathedrals in the kingdom, so that each one could do something of this. Which also happened, but it didn't help much. For they had but one text to follow, viz Jerome.

About Eriksmässan, King Gustaf came to Uppsala with quite a lot of power. He had probably 2,000 courtiers who all rode in shiny armor (armor). So a huge flag with jacks.

Then he gave a rather welcoming speech (slang) to the common people on old Uppsala mounds. Among other things, he complained there that there were too many lazy and useless priests in the kingdom, also that every monastery was full of monks, all of whom were there nothing more than a pest that devoured the best crops of the land.

He asked if they didn't want him to pattern them. The scholars were able to preach, he would provide them with good entertainment. But the other useless bread beggars (bags of bread) would surely look about themselves and follow what God had commanded and in their spaciousness receive poor, sick, lame, blind and crippled people, feed and nurse them to their neediness &c. Then the common people cried out that they wanted to keep their monks and have them untouched, because they themselves would feed and nurture them. So he left them there at that time.

When he then rode home, he made Archielectum maiengreve (archcount?) and put a large wreath on him, which he himself carried home. A few days later he held a stately Maiengreve beer. He placed the king in the place of honor and himself on the high seat opposite, with his courtiers and court officials around him, so that his gifts surpassed those of the king. He toasted the king and said: "May your grace drink of grace for another good year." Because of this statement, he was then seriously despised by both the nobility and the common man.

A few days later, the king went up daily to the judgment chapter. There they began to discuss again, and even more fiercely than what had happened before Christmas, especially about the immunities, privileges and liberties of the churches, etc.

The king himself intervened and asked Doctor Peder Galle where they had obtained such privileges. Doctor Peder replied that the Holy Church had received its privileges from Christian emperors, kings and princes. Even the nobility and the common man had donated their property to churches and monasteries to support the persons who would serve God. And princes, lords, and authorities had ratified and confirmed this by their letters, which were to be valid and eternal. Then the king further asked whether kings and princes might not in future revoke such privileges as they had given without sufficient proof, and that they had been deceived by the preaching of monks and priests about transmigration of souls, purgatory, and other such things which could never be proved by the scriptures. There, Doctor Peder either had no opportunity or could not answer. The king asked the archbishop to answer, but he remained silent and did not say a word, especially as they noticed that the king was becoming seriously agitated. But Master Jören Thurson, the provost, came forward and defended such privileges very and vehemently, and even wanted to go so far as to say that the privileges which emperors, kings, or princes had previously given and confirmed should in no way be disturbed or changed by God supreme judgment and eternal damnation.

The king listened meekly to what he spoke of, but at last asked him to prove it by the holy scripture, which he was willing to do. He also said that he did not deny that the good and able persons who worked diligently for the glory of God in the church deserved their good provision. But, he added, there were others who could only produce unnecessary and incomprehensible shouting in churches and monasteries. When evidence was required that could be supported by the Holy Scriptures, the deacon was of no help. It was then decided that their liberties and privileges in the country should be entirely at the king's pleasure.

During the summer or spring before this, the noble and well-born bachelor Nils Stenson died in Uppsala. Quite a large part of the nobility and his mother, Mrs. Christine, Sten Sture's widow, gathered to bury him. They carried his corpse with ceremony to every church, convent, and chapel in the city, and everywhere Masses were held. In the end, however, he was taken to Uppsala Cathedral and buried there between the royal throne and the altar to the saint Sebastian.

After the passing of this good young man, a malicious and desperate event occurred which caused harm to the country. An angry and troubled man named Jens, born in Björkesta parish, whose mother was a wife of dubious background, served on a farm of Knut Anderson and was stolen from him for more than 30 or 40 marks. He then went over to Nils Crumme, also served with him but then left him in anger, and went to Dalarna where he claimed to be the son of Sten Sture's son and called himself Nils Stenson. He lied to everyone in Orsa, Mora and Leksand

Said that after he became fertile to the kingdom after his father, King Gustaf could not suffer him, but as soon as he saw him, he would run up and seize the sword, intending to kill him. Also that King Gustaf had rejected the Christian faith and become Lutheran and a pagan. And many other lies and betrayals he had told the valley men. He was also somewhat well-respected, also had a scaly mouth to speak with, his words were ready for him. And when he spoke before a congregation and happened to mention the young Mr. Sten, whom he called his father, he immediately wept bitterly.

The valley men cried along. Often asked them in the middle of the building to do it for God's sake, and falling on their knees, read the Our Father and Ave Maria for his father's soul. Thanked the valley men that they had loved his father so much, and asked them also to let him as a son have some spark of the same love. And in short, he spoke so much to them, that those who lived in these three parishes had mostly been willing to sacrifice their lives for his sake. They put to him some young men as many as he wanted, they were to protect him.

An old courtier had also given himself to him named Peder Gröm. He was a capable man for his neck, had served the young Herr Sten and proved manly against the enemies of the Kingdom. He never surrendered to King Christian's people, but kept everything by the forest with some others, always watching over them to surprise the enemy, in which he was also very lucky. He was also from the beginning with King Gustaf, also proved to be a man, but he then fell off, only when Peder Sunnanväder quarreled, and when his rod was worn out, this Peder Gröm became increasingly worn, stood here in the valleys of Sweden and there in the valleys of Norway, was very well known among the public. He also gave himself to the Dalatjuven, did a lot of good after he had a scaly mouth to speak with. The valley men also used him quite a bit for sinew and other things. But when Dalatjuvenn's time was up, King Gustaf got the servant Peder Gröm in Norway.

He was brought here to Sweden and after long investigations he was put (after his deserved salary) on a ladder near Stockholm.

The prepared daljunker or thief then went to Rättvik, used there the same arts, traded with them at their best. But there he got a completely different answer. They answered him in his mouth that he was not Mr. Sten's son. And wherever he had been, they did not owe him, he had not taken them and the kingdom out of such distress as King Gustaf had done. With such answers he departed thence, and when he had more steadiness they bestowed upon him very good things, that he began to boast of seized weapons and other splendor. They asked him to keep still and be content as long as he had his trip to Norway, he would surely come back with good news. He took six men with him and went to Norway and with whom he allied himself, he slandered and accused King Gustaf. He came to Archbishop Olof in Trondheim, he gave him power and quite politely showered him with great gifts and all kinds of help and support, got him 300 men, which was decided to his hand in a year and a day. For he was earnestly fond of the sense that he should be the young lord's son.

He then went to Fröjered with the archbishop's invitation, preached and was assigned to his daughter. The maiden gave him a gold chain and put it around his neck, so large that it reached down to his hips. All this (one can imagine) happened in the joyful hope that she would become queen of Sweden. When he had now stayed in Norway as long as he could imagine being polite, he said he wanted to return to Sweden and take over the kingdom. He pulled over the mountains and into Dalarna again, picked up and started to travel.”

But there no one wanted to follow him more than the three parishes. Those who lived in Gangne and Tuna were what we usually call in Latin neutrales, that is, they did not agree with anyone righteous, neither with the dalkarlen nor King Gustaf. No one wanted to stand firm with either of them, and no one wanted to stand firm against, could well suffer both of their servants. But those who lived in Hedemora, Skedvi and Huseby were somewhat more loyal to King Gustaf. So the valley earl sent a bunch of people down to Hedemora and Huseby monastery, where some of the King's courtiers were in camp, he had ordered them killed, so they would have their horses and whatever else they could get with them.

When they got there, Hedemora showed them love and the others shamelessly and let them go home again, both those who were sitting at home, and what they brought down with, as the valley men, with some surprise, wanted to meet them half way and ask their rightful lord King Gustaf to he would come to their aid with his men of war.

Now when the people of Tuna heard this, they fell somewhat more seriously against the valley man and said they wanted to stay with the mountain people with their rightful lord and king. A few stabs were unleashed as they had their message to each other. Those who were sent from Tuna always sent some party down here to draw them to the valley man, the same did the others, sending their message close up to draw them to the King. In Tuna and thereabouts the King's bailiffs were always shown some suitable force, who there were used to the emissaries of the valley men, behaved so that most of them returned home with a bloody face. The other messengers did the same. And there was much murder there and was between both parties. Now when the valley men saw that Rättvik and Gangne and the whole mountain village were against them, and had nothing else to expect from the common people outside the plains Rumboland, in addition to the King managing with his huge military men, they began to receive advice in their ears and to think in what danger they stood. They mostly began to doubt whether he would be Mr. Sten's son.

Gripe for that reason so much in counsel that they should be put one day with the others, for a month's time. And before this would be investigated and proven, it was better to wait and see what would happen.

When King Gustaf heard this, he went to Västerås and called the largest part of the council and his aunt Mrs. Kerstin, asked her to write to him, which also happened. She wrote and asked him if he acknowledged her as his mother, all the time he said that Herr Sten was his father, what he wanted to say was that there was nothing necessary to prove that this was an obvious lie. She also could not forget how many children God gave her with her blessed lord Sten. She saw her first son (she named him) Nils Stenson dead in the face some time ago in Uppsala. The other son, Svante Stenson, she knew well where he was. She also spoke of all her children by their names. But you (she said) I do not recognize, your own conscience shall testify (you lie) before God and men.

Then King Gustaf ordered the letter to be sent with the sennenboden for them to read aloud and publicly so that all the dale men who were present could hear it. Now when this happened, they asked him for his answer to Mrs. Christine's letter. He replied that his dear mother Mrs. Christina no longer wanted to recognize him, that he was born before their wedding. Then it fell like a weight upon the eyes of the dalkarlans (who had any understanding) that they understood that this was the noble and virtuous lady of whom they had heard. It is easy to imagine how sad and upset she was when she found out about this from the senningeboden, when they were back in Västerås.

Then King Gustaf sent you a good army. They took with them many of the common people from the mountain clans, but none other than those who wanted to come along voluntarily.

Coming in to Börstade ferigo, there he laid others side by side without meeting completely strong. They shot many shots and arrows across the river at each other. Then Rättvik's men came this side of the elf. But of course they feared that they would be enemies. So they from Rättvik had sent their message to them, letting them understand that their intention was to increase and strengthen King Gustaf's troop, and wanted to maintain life and blood with him. There the brave lay there together for a few days. The king then requested that Gustaf's people should talk to the others to get leadership and hostages for 15 days, which they wanted to send to them later. Which also happened. They sent time over Peder Svenson in Wiborebodha, Måns Nilsson in Asboda, Anders Pederson in Rankhyttan and others of the foremost.

Then Måns Nilson showed himself to be a faithful man. Had he so hardened to the end, he would certainly not have come to the loss which (thank God) later befell him. But it is a true saying, no one has such strong legs that he can carry good days, unless God falls to him. The aforesaid Måns Nilson said to the valley men, asked to be imprisoned, bound and compelled, until they had properly investigated the matter. Where they could find the truth that the rebellious man was Herr Stone's son, he would allow them to cut him into a hundred pieces. All the others who were with him said the same. Said further that they had done wrong, that they had been so frivolous, that they stole faith from a dirty person. Why was there no other counsel on the way, either they would now give him up, sit down, ask their dear right lord and king for mercy and friendship for what had happened, for which they wished to be good mediators, or else they would they will be so badly used by the king: Gustaf's people, the Bergslagen and justices, that in the three parishes not a dog or a rooster would survive.

And much else was said and answered there. After it had been dealt with, the valley men asked whoever was on the king's side to step out of the ring, as long as they could consult among themselves about what they should answer and decide.

Then they called them into the ring again, and gave them their answer under these terms and prefaces: that they would deny their valley man and sit down. Only if he could get free and preserve his free reign in the country, would he free and try to support himself in the best way. After that what they had done would be forgiven and a public matter. Thirdly, that no new faith or Lutheran doctrine should be forced upon them. Fourthly, that the king should not dress so foreign and motley. Fifthly, that he should burn up or abstain from those who ate meat on Fridays or Saturdays, &c.

With this message they withdrew again and sent the message through night and day to King Gustaf. He hastily wrote a reply to the valley men, promising to keep the first and second articles relentlessly, but asking them not to concern themselves with theology and social science, as they understood nothing of it. To the fourth he replied that he did not want to be ruled by them in how he should dress his servants and courtiers. He could and would follow other potentates, emperors, kings and princes, that we Swedes are no more pigs or goats than them.

So the valley men now had no choice but to give themselves up and be content with it. Peace was confirmed on both sides, all the peasants sat down on both sides, and the king's men-of-war retired to their castles again. But the dalkarls demanded that the same dalkarl should be free and remain in the kingdom and in Norway. He was ashamed to give himself to the archbishop, to Mrs. Ingegerd or anyone else he had had dealings with, he was no more than himself and went and begged in small lake towns like Marstrand and Kungälv, etc.

After some time he left Sweden and went to Germany. Three years later he came to Rostock. By chance, a royal scribe named Wulff happened to be in Rostock at the same time, and the Dalkarlen described was quickly taken to prison on charges of all manner of dishonest acts he had carried out in Sweden. Rostock's council, however, did not allow any of these charges to proceed, choosing instead to convict him of the worst crime. When this was proved to him, they would not pardon him. Wulff immediately wrote to Sweden to ask for Knut Anderson's sworn letter and seal, which contained all the information about what the Dalkarlen had stolen from the good lord. He was then sentenced to death, but was pardoned to the sword.

During the winter and up to this time the king had been on friendly terms with Archbishop Olof in Trondheim and had sought him diligently with messages and letters. Among other things, he immediately requested that the archbishop should treat Herr Peder Sunnanväder and Master Knut as friends and set them free from the hands of his servants. He also pointed out to the archbishop what the right thing was and how many thousands of marks he had received from the kingdom's treasury and had never accounted for, after what gross treason and rebellion they had both committed in Sweden, etc.

When the archbishop heard this, he did not want to make any defense, but instead allowed the king's servants to take them prisoner and bring them to Sweden. In August they were taken through Uppsala and to Stockholm. One of them, Herr Peder Matthei, who was also called Herr Peder Silverköparen, had committed a small crime by unwittingly taking some of Sunnanväder's letters to his friends in the kingdom. His only crime was that, out of misunderstanding, he had brought some of Sunandväder's letters to his friends here in the Kingdom.


At that time he was not in the kingdom either, but was brought to join them after they were taken through Uppsala. So all three of them were introduced to Stockholm with a fixed team and were dressed in old worn clothes and sloppy coats, ridden on skinny horses. Peder Sunnanväder with a straw wreath on his head and a broken wooden sword at his side. Master Knut with a bishop's coat of arms. And a large crowd in crappy clothes thought they were their fellow runners. They called out to the people they met and asked if anyone had seen King Gustav or knew where he had gone. Because there had come a new king, Mr. Peder chancellor Sunnanväder, who wanted to arrest him. Through the north gate they were ushered, and one long street south and the other north, on the latter into the Great Square and towards the prison, where they were to meet the executioner. Much rhyme was also read about their journey. Also came some knights on the well-founded claim that the wise men had rather be exposed as traitors than support the teachings of Dr. Martin Luther. These rhymes were performed with much laughter and revelry and acts etc. Then they were taken to prison where they were held over Christmas and into the next year.

During this year there were quite a lot of forest riders everywhere in Uppland, so the king called together all the mountain men who were at Sala mountain and other mountains and increased his knightly army with them. He also set up chiefs, some above 3 roots, some above 4, and then sent each company to its place, that they should go through the woods across and along, and clear out what weeds they found of that kind. Which also happened. Then the peasants thanked the king and were happy that they could live safely and not be afraid of attacks like this every day.

1527 The reduction and first blows against the church

In 1527 on the last day of the distinction market Sunnanväder and the Silver Buyer were brought to Uppsala. On February 18, their trial was held in the old hall, where the clergy used to drink priest's ale. It settled both spiritual and worldly well until over 15 or 16 twelfths.

The king accused them himself and had more than 60 of Sunnanväder's letters read out, all of which were full of spit, spit and treason. Subsequently, Mr. Peder Sunnanväder was sentenced according to Sweden's described law as a traitor to the ladder and wheel, because he was considered to have acted against his fatherland. He was executed and set up (it was between 12 and 1 after noon) on the highest hill south of the city. But the third person, Mr. Peder Silverköparen, was pardoned. On the Wednesday after that and with similar measures for justice, he was sentenced, cut down and put on wheels near Stockholm.

So also God punished the land this year with a terrible famine. The people had nothing but bark bread to go by and those who could buy something else, such as chaff or mash, were considered very lucky. In Roden and everywhere in the archipelago some people died of hunger. The reason can be understood to have been that God wanted to show them that He was displeased that they so contemptuously resisted the teaching of God's Word and condemned the same teaching before they had even heard or knew what it was, simply because Satan blew in their ear. Nor would they hear or learn the difference between jesters and baptizers and the pure doctrine of God's word, but held all to one thing and said what they pleased.

But the people were so angry that they had another reason. They put all the blame on the king and called him a bark king, just as his culprit and ancestor King Carl had been to him.

But the same terrible hunger had killed several of them, as the king had not procured food from Livonia during the following spring and summer, enough grain, even a few thousand barrels of rye and malt, with which he fed the whole kingdom. He let them buy at one mark per barrel, but according to a certain rank first one district, then another, first one parish and then another, so that no one would buy on the black market, and then he distributed it to the poor without one would be favored over another, so that he (from the terrible famine) himself and his wife and children would be preserved. But the people were so angry, ungrateful and disobedient that they did not give the king any thanks at that time. Bishop Brask was outraged by this and so were his followers, both nobles and priests. In addition, there were a large number of books from the prelates, canons, prebendates and other uneducated clergy, and this was where their greatest hope lay. They feared that they would lose their great income and high position, so they hated the king because they wanted to distort the word of God and his pure teaching.

Bishop Brask heard something about this from the deacons. So he called some who had previously come from Uppland and asked what the Lutheran Church said and preached, especially about their position, namely bishops, canons, prebendates and other priests, and about our Holy Father the Pope in Rome &c. The deacons answered: "The Pope they call the Antichrist, and his companions and helpers cardinals, bishops, priests and monks they call the kingdom of the Antichrist. And no one is a proper bishop or priest, but those who are the servants of the congregation, preaching the word of God to them, teaching people to know themselves, comforting and strengthening them in their struggle against sin, and administering the sacraments in the manner the apostles used to do.
Then Brask answered: "How can you prove that the Pope is the Antichrist? Should not bishops and priests be servants and subordinate to the authorities?”

It is not long ago (said he) that the young Mr. Sten Rijkezen's master took me under the arm and led me, just as he did with all the other bishops. He answered that they proved with the teachings of St. Paul, saying so and so St. Paul writes in this or that epistle, in this or that chapter.

Then the bishop ran up, almost as if furious, tore off all his clothes, threw his hat to the ground, and said:It would have been better if Paul had been combustible than to be recognized by every man. Now (said he) my words are proved, I have advised the most worthy father cardinals to go to the pope and beg him to pronounce interdict and forbid any one to have or read the epistles of St. Paul, to have them burned and forbidden." From here it came (as previously mentioned) that the common people in the same Östergötland, Småland and Västergötland were completely disobedient.

When the king's bailiffs negotiated with them or wrote to them themselves, all this was met with despair and scorn. The same thing happened in the valleys. They were even worse than the others. The king's bailiffs were hardly even allowed to speak to them before they beheaded them. The inhabitants of Hälsingland and most of Norrland were not much better. Therefore the king had to think of disarming some of the countrymen and forcing them into obedience.

The king called his greatest warriors, both his own and all the nobility, both from Finland and Sweden, and gathered them at the Candlemas Fair in Västerås. They were well on horseback and on foot at 12 or 14 thousand. So they took them straight up to Dalarna. They then wrote to both the Eastern and Western Dalarna that they would meet him anywhere on the Tuna, either with honest arms or submission, whichever they preferred. If they did not want to meet him there, he would visit them at home so that they would obey. He got them also at Tuna, they stood in a heap and spread out men of war around them. It was a fierce battle.”

Måns Brynteson spoke mostly on behalf of the king. He asked them what they wanted. What reason had they to despise their rightful lord and king, to whom they had paid homage and sworn allegiance, and show such manifest contempt for his grace or his commands that his commanders could receive no obedience or obedience from them, even if they had forgotten what mercy His Majesty had shown them for the rebellions they had made during the time of Mr. Peder Sunnanvæder and the Dalecarlians. The Dalecarlians at last replied insensibly, saying that they thanked the king for having pardoned them for the two rebellions, but then they knew they had done no wrong.

Herr Måns said it was bad enough to have a treacherous and disobedient heart against his lord and king. They knew the same, as was proved by the fact that whenever His Grace's emissaries or commanders came there, they were at once ready to raise their axes high, draw their bows, hurl out the foulest words they could, and speak scornfully of their lord and king. It is against Sweden's laws, which state that anyone who defames one of the king's councils or the king himself has committed the death penalty. Therefore they could forgive themselves freely because if His Grace's majesty now wished to pardon them for all such things, they would be so badly offended that not a foot would rise again if Börstade färist. The house of knights rode to the king where he stood among (though he was fully clothed from head to toe) and begged him to have the peasants separated, to place their friends Retwick's men and several undecided persons in a particular place, and let the others remain in a particular place . The king answered and commanded that the high councilor of Dalecarlia and many others who had used their shameless and imprudent mouth against him should be examined and judged according to Sweden's law book.

The requested written request was submitted and approved. Then they hurried off and left the place. When the others saw that the blood began to flow, other people from Skellona came, fearing for their lives, began to scream and cry, fell on their knees, prayed for God's mercy from the king, promised absolution, and after a rather long negotiation, they received mercy and kindness . The king swore allegiance and loyalty again, etc. Then King Gustaf came to the Dalecarlen to speak and make them obey.

When the king had called his will in Dalarna, he went with the whole army around Kopparberget, Svärdsjö and over Hälsingeskogen and into Hälsingland. He collected the greetings at a suitable place in Delsbo. They were gathered from both the southern and northern provinces, also from Medelpad and some from Ångermanland. They stood in the ring and begged them to follow the Dalecarl, and wondered why they were so disobedient and scornful of His Majesty and his servants. After they had learned the truth about the Dalecarl, they could not use many words, but immediately asked for forgiveness. Therefore there was no execution but a few were imprisoned for a short time. Then the king went with his army to Gästrikland and did business there too. Then he went from there to Stockholm and separated all the people of war from him, except his daily court.

The king worked as much as he could to make the peasants understand him and his work for the benefit, but it did not help much because they were always against him. The reason was that he had so few just friends who understood and wished to interpret his affairs in the best way, which he could not obtain until the popish weeds were rooted out, and both high and low began to understand and realize the gospel doctrine, which taught what subjects owe to do to the authorities and how the authorities should act towards them.

Never had the dalkarls been so easy to rebel, now with Sunnanväder, now with the daljunker, or in the future with Västgots, or even the Småland with Dacken, where they had not had a wrong opinion of the king, namely that they thought he wanted to ruin and oppress the right Christian faith and the true worship of God, and try to introduce a false and heretical faith into the kingdom. This opinion blew the ears and hearts of the other people full of the old people and a multitude of old priests. 

It followed that the king, no matter how softly and kindly he spoke to the common people, or how harshly and sharply he wished, was ill-received and went to the worst. When he spoke softly, they said he now wanted to flatter them with a hare's foot. When he spoke harshly, they said that they had nothing to expect but tribute and abuse, swearing and evil words, and that he wanted to destroy them and the whole kingdom. The countrymen who still sat still were, and nothing more than a cry of fear (after they heard that he had with strong hands set the dale men and the northland in battle), not of the right church or reverence, which all Christian subjects ought to have for their dear lord and king, as the wise Solomon writes and teaches in his High Wisdoms, that the king and the kingdom should be likened to bride and groom. So the king long stamped and watched before he could understand these causes. And finding that most of such old priests, monks, bishops with much influence from a part of the nobility, clung to the old papacy, he thought of removing it by the means which would follow next.

When the king perceived that Dr. Jens, who had been elected archbishop, was not willing to assist in any good reformation, but clung to the power of the pope, and did not want to lose his high position and great splendor, he called him to him, and plainly said that he would not recognize him as any archbishop and asked him to leave the country and forbade him to return to Uppsala, as he feared his Roman designs. But the other had already fled before, and had taken with him his best things and treasures, as well as all the documents, chronicles, histories, records, or whatever of the old kingdom that were in the libraries of Uppsala, and brought them with him to Rome, where he later wrote a Latin chronicle, mixing both truth and untruth. But no matter how much they tried to guard him, he still managed to have a few Roman mistresses before he left the country. When he left Stockholm, he stayed in Roden and went to Söderby church, where he wrote down all the information about the clergy in the entire Roslagen, and lied to them all, saying that he was one of the king's envoys to many places abroad, especially to Poland for a poison business, and that a cutting boat had broken up where his chests with their treasures had been. He was in such grief that he did not know what to do. Finally, he was severely affected by the sentence and was ashamed to have acted so haughtily and failed to behave as such a person should towards the king and the whole kingdom. He asked them with great consolation to help him with money, oxen or whatever they had at hand. He would, on his return to his archbishopric, not only earn much money but also double payment, and would always have their favorable view of him as long as he lived. Such persuasions made the priests so friendly that at last they gave him more than they could afford, out of their own pockets, the belt from their own bodies, self-bowls, mugs, and anything else they could find.

One person borrowed and lent to one another and carried forward, those who were farther from home begged him that he would undertake the journey of three or four days, to which he willingly gave time. They came back and not empty handed. He got the oxen and the horses himself, there was nothing to say about that. With this he left the kingdom at the beginning of June and never returned.

A few days before John the Baptist's day, Lord's Day began in Västerås. On the Sunday before, the queen gave a stately banquet to those who had come, inviting bishops, councils, merchants, farmers, &c. At the same banquet, the queen made something clear with a slight change what she had in mind, which she had found annoying.

In the past it was customary for the bishops to have the highest place next to the king, then the council, then prelates and canons, then the nobility, etc. They also had a similar order in all the letters they wrote to foreign countries. But when the kingdom did not have a king but a chieftain, the bishops sat not only over the council of the Riksdag, but also over the lord and chieftain of the kingdom. So the archbishop sat in the high seat, so the other bishops. Closest to the archbishop sat the bishop of Linköping, then Skara, then Strängnäs, then Västerås, then Växjö, and then all the other bishops to Turku. Closest to the lord of the realm, then the council of the Riksdag, then depending on what was previously mentioned. But King Gustav made such a change. He placed the council first nearest to himself, then the most distinguished of the knights of the realm, then the bishops, then the lesser nobility, then the priests who were then called, then the merchants, and then the peasants. It pleased the bishops and those who were elected there quite badly.

The next day all the bishops and elect, together with the prelates and canons of the church of Saint Egidio, gathered before the bright door, consulted and advised each other what the king would like to do with this enterprise.

Bishop Hans Brask replied to Linköping and said he understood well enough that he wanted to make them tired and naked like other peasant priests, to take away from them their interest, castle and fortress that they had. Then some others, Bishop Peder in Västerås and master Magnus Såmmar, who was elected archbishop in Strängnäs, replied that they were quite content to be both poor and rich as the king himself wanted them to be, and that they had little to carry and give away. Then Brasken ran up, got upset and said they were crazy if they did that. "If the king wants to take something from them by force, take it," he said, "but if he does not want to give it to us out of good will, let us do what pleases the Holy Father the Pope." Then we can have a free action and complain before his holiness. Therefore, I warn everyone not to give up on the Pope. Many kings and princes have done the same thing that this king wants to do now. But they have been excommunicated by the thunderbolt of the Holy Father, so that the people of the Church have recovered what they are entitled to and have been freed from them. 

But if we fall from the Pope, our last refuge, we have fires and dangers on every side. First we are ex-communicated by him. Then we are hardened as slaves under the king, without daring to answer for the liberties and privileges of the church. Here they were so affected that they all fell into his opinion. Hence many swore oaths and undertook never to give up the Pope as long as they lived, or to agree with any article of Luther's teaching, but to hold to the mean between two and seven, with the hope that it would soon be different and the Pope's teaching and worship would again emerge. Afterwards many letters called protestations were made, which they sealed and signed each with their own hand, and clung to them until their death.

The protests were then found under the floor in Västerås cathedral in 1542 and brought to the king. Extensive measures were then begun, which took place in the Klosterträdgården because the castle had not yet been repaired much since the war had been going on. Then the chancellor made the presentation on behalf of the king on this basis. For the king it was impossible to be their head, to keep the government in good order, and to protect them so long as things stood in the kingdom, as now (he thought). Here everyone wanted to rule for themselves. All the work and toil that the king performed with a good intention for the good of the kingdom, was taken and used for evil. When the king wished to cure any wrong, he saw that the people of the kingdom would at once meet him with scorn, which he could not blame them so much as their evil instigators. There were great deficiencies on all sides, both in the spiritual and the worldly estate. The people in the spiritual estate only wanted to live easy and good days, did not care about their office, and the people did not learn about God's will. 

And when the king requested that the pure doctrine of God's word should be spread, he was called a quack and a heretic, although he had suppressed and expelled those who wanted to take matters into their own hands. His royal dedication, attention and diligence allowed him not only to enjoy benefits, but also to be exposed to slander, dislike and persecution. Therefore he could not be their head and king. It was then brought forward that the King would complain that the Crown's interest was so weakened and mutilated that there was hardly anything left to maintain a crown with, which could be well proved by the fact that the young Mr. Sten Sture, the leader of the State Administrator, could not maintain more than 500 men of war . It was also proved that some of the bishops had much more resources for building up, and were in much greater fortune than the lord or king of the realm.

This happened because the chivalry and nobility were weakened, because their parents lacked knowledge and naively gave away their best and greatest estates, including real estates, from their right and natural inheritance, to churches, monasteries, prebends, etc. As a result, they had no or very little to live on unless they had fiefs and grants from the crown. Added to this was also a great deficiency in the kingdom with the constant appeal and firing against the pope in Rome, which meant that the ruler or king of the kingdom was constantly at risk of offending the Roman community. Even some bishops became increasingly unstable, while the regent of the kingdom was in rebellion and open war. While they were hiding in their castle, the lord of the kingdom increased his influence and power as much as seemed possible. Such things were too difficult for them to handle. As Archbishop Gustav told Mr. Sten Sture that he had rejected from his Pope to fight a sharp battle for himself, so that Mr. Sten would see and know if he would bump into someone on his side or if someone else wanted to take up that wax candle to this.

Fourthly, it was not acceptable that the bishops should have any castles and strongholds in their own control, but they must give them in pledge and put them under the king's hands, that he may grant and dispose of them according to his own discretion.

Fifthly, it was of no use to the kingdom that some of the bishops, prelates, and other canons had twice as much income as they needed. Therefore their earnings and provisions were to be made known to the king, and when they left as much as they needed for their needy lands, they were to be content with that, and not exploit the peasants by forcing them into any malice against the king. Finally, daily wiles were invented by peasants, priests, monks, and deacons which were nothing but mistrust to tell the innocent common people about their estates and possessions and lead them into misleading ways, which was not acceptable to the king to accept.

The decision was this, that unless it had been intended to remedy this error in these articles, the king wanted to sue the kingdom and the government.

Then the king asked the knights and the bishops to give him an answer to this. Then Herr Thure Jönsson got up and a few with him, both because he didn't want to rush but patiently hear their answers. When it was confirmed, Bishop Brask spoke and said: ""We who are in this spiritual state must confess that we are sworn to our most holy father the Pope, and have promised him that we shall undertake nothing in learning or any spiritual things without his consent and memory. We are also sworn to our gracious lord the king by fealty and manship, and ought to be obedient to him so far as nothing goes against the decrees and statutes of the pope or universal council, which are general episcopal meetings ordained and ordained for us. Therefore (said he) it is not our duty to renounce by our will the property of Holy Church, loose or fixed, movable or immovable, when the Pope has commanded us to keep it in custody. But if these priests, monks, or deacons invent any artifices or frauds which do not exist or have promised, they may well be removed and punished for such.””

Then the king asked the council and the nobility what they thought of this answer. Mr. Thure and his party said they could not understand any answer other than that it was the next correct answer, but not all the articles had yet been answered. Then King Gustav said: "Then I don't want to be your king anymore. All I expected was another response from you guys. Now I cannot be surprised that the peasants are mad, when I feel that they have nice reproaches against me."""

Do not let the rain separate me, do not let the sunshine make me likewise, hard years happen, famine and pestilence or whatever it may be, all I have to carry on my shoulders, just as they did not know that I am a human being, and no one God. It is also the thanks that through great sorrow and worry I brought into the country so much grain, rye and malt from foreign countries so that these poor Swedish people would not perish, that they would suffer so incredibly much. But (he sighed) I must work for your good as much as I can and am able, either in spiritual or worldly things, yet I have nothing to expect in reward but that you would gladly see an ax sit in my head, but I will not hold the handle yourself. Such wages and such sorrows, I could do without as well as any of you. Which I must all draw (yes, more labor and trouble than any of you know or understand can, both in foreign and domestic matters for what I shall be called your principal).

I will now set myself over the heads of both monks and priests, and all manner of the pope's cattle, yet we have little to do with his high bishops or others. In summary, I want to judge and rule over myself. And I have called myself here to your king. But how can on such scales be your king? I think the worst I have heard does not want to do than any human being. So I say that now I don't want to be your main man and king. I give it up completely, and I leave myself alone so that I can choose which good man you want. If you can get what you have always been able to and can always be of use to you all, I would love to see it. If you are so fond of redeeming me properly from the realm, first pay me for every bar I have set down, then what I have cost the realm from my own, I promise you, I will draw my cow out of the realm, and never ever again come here again, to this unpleasant, smelly and ungrateful fatherland of mine.

Towards the end of the speech the king himself burst into bitter tears and would not say another word to them, but went to the castle. When the king began to shed tears, most of the people, both the nobility, the peasants and the merchants, as well as the clergy did the same.

The chancellor spoke to them and said: Good people, assemble and deliberate well about this. We ask God for good advice. This is a very important matter concerning the welfare of the people. As you can hear, there are only two paths to choose from. Either we follow the will of our gracious master and ask him for mercy and benevolence and that he remain our leader, or you follow the advice to choose another and depose him, as you heard him say himself. There is no third way. But they were all so confused that they could not agree on anything that day. No one dared to speak openly either. No one dared to suggest that they should start trading in this. Towards evening they all went to their respective lodgings. Here Thure beat his drum from his lodgings across the square and from the cloister and quite loud, as if he were angry. As he went he muttered to himself, saying, “Tread and tread, they will make me a heathen or a heretic this year, etc.

But King Gustav stayed in the castle for three or four days, called together his best retinue and some of the old courtiers, poor people whom he knew had suffered and wanted to remove the lice as they say. He arranged a party and entertainment for them, where they amused themselves in their own way. The next day, all the Diets came together in the same place to begin discussing this matter, but they could not agree. The assembly was so divided and disagreeable that what one said was contradicted by another.

Like what happened to Nimrod's party when they built the Tower of Babel. Those of the nobility, such as Nils Crumme and some others, who put forward some good advice that aid had with it, were too low-key and poorly heard. Then the common people began to shout and shout, and both the good lords the council and the knights drew together and made one that the peasants should be told where to obey and then go home. Some of the farmers said and added, when we want to think the truth, King Gustaf had done them no wrong. They further said that the Riksdag did not want to consult urgently, and before this the matter to the end as they and rightly should, and even so that this would not remedy everything. Followed and heartily the merchants to the same sentence and shouted in the same way and said that they wanted to risk life and limb with King Gustaf.

Stockholm's farmers apparently said they wanted to keep the city of Stockholm in King Gustaf's hands for the first trial year, what else could happen. All cried out and demanded to know the answer, how they should act, and what they counseled as the first voices would give, that the common man must know what they should choose. So (after no one would begin the speech) the Chancellor made signs that he would begin, but Mr. Thure did not go very well with him, therefore he was at once pressed down.

Then Master Måns Sommar Electus stepped up to Strängnäs, clapped loudly, asked permission from high and low that he might speak, and that they would be so kind as to bear hearing him. When he had made this entreaty, he set forth his opinion, saying that they were now in grave danger, and would therefore, for the sake of our Lord's death, consider by which of these two positions which had been presented they might best escape. One, namely opposing King Gustaf and choosing another king, both children and old people would think about how this would affect them.

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They decided to release him from all his real estate that he had in the country, because it was impossible for him to pay. He did thank Mr. Thure for his good will in wanting to defend and protect the people of the church, but he feared they would suffer more harm than good. It was bad, he said, that they should be protected in that way, that the whole kingdom should fall into disrepair and ruin, they would rather bide their time when they could. The kingdom was now starting to recover in all areas, so there was nothing but good to unite with, and even if the head were to be removed (God forbid), they wouldn't feel very safe.

Our fierce enemies, who have always cried out and desired the kingdom, would not long leave it untouched &c. He said much more that was far to touch. So he decided that he asked them to consider what had been said carefully and well. Then both the knighthood and other people rose up and thanked him for having begun to pursue the matter. And although they talked and acted, King Gustav was mostly in the pile. The first knight replied that they had decided that they wanted to reason together about both spiritual and worldly matters and arrive at a common cause, so that the others who were worldly would know how to behave. Which also happened.

Doctor Peder Galle and Master Olof stepped up and were very much grabbed. But they mostly disagreed that Doctor Peder wanted to discuss in Latin, but Master Olof wanted it in Swedish so that all ordinary people would understand what they said right or wrong. They went on for a long time, if one asked in one language the other answered in another, until the ordinary people started shouting and asking them to speak Swedish. They continued to argue against the source, so nothing more was traded than that day.

On the third day, when they gathered again, things became sharper that the common men, merchants and peasants called for chivalry.

Whatever wanted to be the cause of their corruption, they now wanted to corrupt them with King Gustaf's help. Here they had also sent messages to the King when he was at the castle. Then the Visigothic lords, Måns Bryntesson and others, fell down to ask Mr. Thure that he wanted to see the situation, not to be so rigid against the King that much harm could happen from it. We dare (they thought) to take the matter first, so that neither of them get out of here alive.

Then Mr. Thure had replied that he would do so too, content himself with this time and follow the king's will, but if the king would not force him to do anything Lutheran and if he did not want to be a good lord, we would surely consult him at another time. After some protracted negotiations, the Council asked the Chancellor and Master Olof to go up to the king, tell what had happened and it had now come to the decision that all the estates of the kingdom wanted to fall at his mercy, ask him for God's sake to keep the regiment, be their chief and defender, from henceforth as heretofore. They were now willing to follow his will, to be obedient to him with all subservience, and if there was anyone among them whom his grace wished to slander or ridicule, they would themselves berate each other or accuse him so that he would be nested according to the law and much else they said . But the King stood very firm, asked them to go back again and say that he wanted to stand by what he had said. They knelt there many times with weeping tears, but it could not help. He had become so angry. They came again to the assembly, and with weeping tears told what answer they had received, and said they durst not go thither for their persons' sake any more, not even the good gentlemen, that they would send others thither in case they should have better good luck getting a more pleasant answer. So they sent Knut Andersson and Mäster Måns Sommar. But they didn't get much other than similar responses, so it was nothing more than mutual wailing and crying with the whole group.

Nevertheless then others sent quite a number one after another, at the last he begged that his Majesty would, for God's sake, come to them in person once. He replied that it could not happen the same day, but the next day he would come. So it didn't get any more postponed than that.

On the fourth day he came and those who were present said that he was welcome. He was received with such salutations, with such weeping and reverence, that it was scarcely understood that the common people did not kiss his feet, as they came near to see how much they needed him, etc. But a great part of those assembled soon forgot this simple event and it was no better since. When now all the estates had had the opportunity to meet and received friendship, promised improvement, made and sworn allegiance and manhood, documents were drawn up again.

It was decided that all articles presented at the beginning should be approved and decided. Likewise, all estates and farms which had been donated to churches and monasteries since King Carl's recess were to have peace and opportunity to recover them, but first they were to have letters and proofs confirming that they were rightful heirs, by telling their genealogy, that they really were of the same blood and stock, etc.

The king then began to speak in person, and wanted to try what would be difficult for him. First, he requested Master Måns Electo to gain access to Tynnelsö Castle in Strängnäs. He replied that he wanted to submit and willingly, and be as rich and poor as the king wanted him. The king replied that this would benefit him greatly as long as he lived, which it did. So requested the King as well Läckö Castle fromn Electo in Skara, and also received the agreeable response thereto.

Then he came to Bishop Brask in Linköping, who was rightly the root of all evil. Brask moaned and stuttered, unable to answer. Then Mr. Thure rose up, begged the King that he would do well and win him that castle in his lifetime. Then the King curtly said no to that, stood up immediately and took a firm hold of Brasken, called his courtiers from him, they were 40 men, asked them to go to his palace alley in Stockholm Gudmund Skrivare, held out his hands to him on their behalf, let him to keep only one man and one servant, then Brasken by his neck forbade him to take off until he had the King's special permission to do so.

These are now the most important points that were discussed at the same lord's day, which is called Västerås recess. One cannot, for the sake of brevity, mention all the articles dealt with, as the same recess is fully described in each man's hands. So the lord's day was ended and the estates of the kingdom were each allowed to return to their homes. But a day or two before they parted, King Gustav sent a good number of his people down to Munkeboda with some of the courtiers whom Bishop Brask had served. When he found out that his servant had taken possession of Munkeboda, he promised Brasken to withdraw from Västerås and return home, but he stuck to the same set conditions as mentioned before.

Some time after this, the King went down to Östergötland, treated the common people about the good and the best of the kingdom, came lately to Linköping. Bishop Brask was there with his fox-like companions and asked the King to enter the Bishop's courtyard, prepared so magnificently that everything was ready, made himself a feast and gift, that he would make the King happy, which also happened. He also said so much good to the King that he began to put his trust in him, playing and joking with him in all possible ways."

When the fox-hunt saw that the King was merry, well at ease, and at once ready for everything, he then struck out the shot his false heart had long held and sated with, and begged the King that he would release him from his castle. The king, unable to think but that he should be as pious as he kept himself, confirmed this by giving him his own hand upon it. Then Brasken began to speak a great deal about Gotland and said that it was not appropriate that the spiritual right should leave Sweden just as the worldly right had been unjustly taken away. He requested that he be allowed to wait for this. That was also confirmed.

When King Gustaf was returned to Uppland again, Brasken collected all the silver and jewels he could get from the cathedrals, monasteries and farm churches, opened the coffins and had them brought down to Söderköping. He then put to sea, visited Gotland as he had promised, and there also collected in bags all he could get hold of. When he got on board and was about to leave here, he asked to blow up any weather, as long as it did not lead to Sweden, but rather to Denmark. That was also the case with Doctor Jöns Svinefot, as long as he was there and also afterwards as long as he lived.

In the following autumn, King Gustav held a wedding in Stockholm for Count Johan van der Høii and Bråkenhus, with his sister Mrs. Margareta, the surviving wife of the blessed Mr. Jakob Brae. Then the king prepared everything to hold his coronation in Uppsala just after Christmas.

Year 1528

AI generated image of a bishop's consecration

On January 5, at the king's command, these three electi took Master Måns Sommar to Strängnäs, Master Måns Haraldi to Skara, Mr. Morten to Turku, their bishop's weddings and consecration by Bishop Peder in Västerås, and it took place in Strängnäs cathedral.

Everything needed for the soon-to-be coronation was ordered. On the Sunday after the Epiphany celebration, King Gustaf was crowned in Uppsala Cathedral as King of Sweden, Göterna and others with the appropriate solemnity and solemnity that the matter deserves, with all the estates of the kingdom present.

Old gentleman Tour Jönsson carried the apple, Lars Siggesson, who was also later appointed Marshal of the Realm, carried the sword, Mr. Holinger Carson carried the sceptre. Bishop Måns in Skara held the high mass. There were also six other bishops present, etc. After the mass, the king knighted the following nobles: First the marshal Herr Lars Siggesson, then Herr Byrge Nilsson, then Herr Ivar Fleming, also Mr Erik Fleming, Mr Johan Thursson, Mr Måns Bryntesson, Mr Nils Olofsson, Mr Ture Ericsson, Mr Knut Anderson, Mr Måns Johansson, Mr Bengt Nilsson and Mr Peder Hård.

The king invited them and all others who came from the estates of the kingdom as guests to celebrate his coronation which was part of the festival. It was a joyous party, where nothing was missing to heighten the joy. It was also followed by days of loud and boisterous parties. First ran Gudmund Printer and Staffan Sasse, but it wasn't about work, it was about a wedding between a high noble, Mrs. Olof Ryning's survivors. They ran eagerly, sometimes the horses ran on their legs, on both sides, sometimes they fell flat so that they broke all four legs. They held no boundaries, things broke and cracked, but in the end Gudmund Skrivare won the victory.

When everything was now arranged for the coronation, the king began to think of other necessary reforms in the kingdom. He called as many ladies and maidens as were present, and gave them much useful advice, and besought them that they had lost their good husbands and fathers in the past war.

At such gatherings (said he) widows of the nobility and full-grown maidens used to be fitted for marriage. But now it was bad to do, because the nobility was in a bad situation because of the evil king Christian. He could also realize that it was difficult for them to deny their position and marry poor men, who would rather have similar bodies of similar nobility, which was also more appropriate.

But he said, "Where shall we take them from?" Therefore he exhorted them not to despise good virtuous poor men if they could not be allowed to marry into the nobility, for I see many female persons but there are quite few men who oppose them &c.

From this royal council it came that many well-born women and maidens were betrothed there, and some were betrothed. Joen Skrivare, a poor man from Västerås whom the king had called from school and employed in his chancellery for four or five years and now sent to bailiff in Västerås, also got a very tall and rich bride. He married the well-to-do woman Hustrum Anne, Måns Green's survivor.

The king also gave him shield and helmet. And many other poor men also came to such benefits. Some time later, King Joen Skrivare's wedding was held in Västerå's monastery building. The king himself followed him to his bridal bed, gave him a warning that he should not forget what had happened to him (though he was born of rather poor folk). Now, out of pure grace and favor, the king had given him a knighthood. He urged him to keep God in mind and beware of pride and complacency. But the poor man was so puffed up with pride that what his lord and king admonished him did not enter into his heart. His legs were too weak to carry him in such a high position and in good days, as (God forgive) is wont to happen to men. Quickly he rose from a low position, but soon fell back down and ruined himself before he knew it.

That's what happened to this Joen Skrivare before a year had passed. Formerly he was pious, but after he married he despised both God and man, and held no one in as high esteem as himself. It was hard to get him to say anything good about anyone. At last he became so insolent that he wanted to master his master and king by various means, which will be touched upon later.

A few days after Easter that year, all the monks left the monastery in Västerås, those who were capable were directly appointed by the king. Their foremen, the priest Bro Niels Andreæ, received the Decanatum in Västerås Cathedral.

Then in the summer he traveled down to Nya Lösen and summoned the council and a few more from the nobility. The time came and King Frederik's envoy also arrived. It was all about the best and wealth of the kingdom. Having agreed, they happily parted, so that each was satisfied with his position. They separated on August 10.

In the same year the king sent some good and able preachers, whom he himself had heard personally, to every cathedral in the kingdom. The scribe advocated them to the bishops and canons, that they should protect and defend them from all evil. But whoever was assigned to Skara thanked God that he could go to Uppland again. The same thing happened to a learned man who was a schoolmaster named Måns Månsson. He had started reading the Gospel of Matthew at school. Therefore, the bishop and others who were of the same attitude opposed that he should be allowed to continue. This also occurred. The good brothers didn't need to be there. When he came in and wanted to read, many ran forward with stones and threw things, and such a game began that the pious man thanked God that he came out of the door. He then could not trust that it was safe there.

Therefore, he moved as quickly as possible Wadstones and stayed there for some time. The reason for this game was the Västgöta gentlemen, Mr. Thure Jenson, Mr. Måns Brynteson, Bishop Måns, Mr. Thure Ericson, Mr. Nils Olofsson. These had a firm and sharp plan for the hands of which Herr Thure Jenson was the chief architect. The good lords had now completely forgotten all the good, all the oaths and obligations they had promised and sworn to the kings. They swore together that no one would fall to the other, but they wanted to take matters so seriously that they would either drive the king out of the kingdom, or they would all die over it. They planned all the evil they could. Mr. Thure wrote to all his sons in Uppland, Mr. Johan Thurson, Larentz Thurson and Master Jören Thurson, domprovost in Uppsala, that they should vote for him and the other Västgöta gentlemen and be steadfast in what they set out to do. But Herr Johan and Larentz were so honest and faithful that they would not read or break their letter, but went straight through night and day to the king and left the letters to him, promising that they would do him no harm and that they would keep come to him with life, blood, promise, fasting and all they had in the world. They also pointed out that their father was always acting crazy and erratic. They also wanted (if it pleased the king) to write about their father's enmity.

But Master Jören Thurson, the dean, acted differently. He took several courtiers, went to his farm Björnö in Frötuna parish and called many brutal peasant boys, whom he paid as landsknechts, they were the worst villains that could exist on earth, so he became 100 men strong. He could not support more people nor pay more. But he did not dare to remain on his farm and be detained by the king. Therefore he fled to a large forest where there was a lot of game and stayed there most of the winter of the following year.”

It was easy to bypass him, even though he had many subordinates, but it was easy to take all the goods in the farm. The king knew this well, but he ignored him because he was so highly regarded. He did not want to visit him with a hand of war, but the King said that he would see how he would manage himself. When he started stealing, he went off to all the farms in the area, including priests and rich farmers. But if he met priests who preached the Holy Gospel in a correct manner, he treated them rather tyrannically with blows and stabs. He then organized his group and was the first to jump aboard the boat to sail out.

He came to Hållenäs, where he negotiated transportation, and then went over to Hälsingland, where he surrendered with his group, and everywhere he went, he commanded them to obey King Gustaf. He then searched for the king's bailiff, Olof Mortenson. And when he had found out that he was in Bollnäs, he went there quickly and seized him in the church on a Sunday and put him and all the King's courtiers who followed him in prison. The vicar there, named Mr. Joen, immediately fell at his feet. He then traveled to all the parishes in Bollnäs, because he thought he would do the same thing throughout the country. But when another priest named Mr. Erik in Nörbo found out about this, he rose up against him and came to Bollnäs two days later and said he wanted to kill them and burn the place down, because they had helped the traitor Domprovsten to arrest the King's bailiff . When the High Priest saw that the great army was approaching, he slipped alone through a back door and into the forest. Nörbokara were as cruel as they wanted to be and threatened to beat them all to hell in Bollnäs. Then the brave Hansers must crawl to the cross, fall to their knees and beg for mercy. The others replied that they would have mercy on them, but it was up to the King.

Bollnä's men inquired further and asked for advice on how to regain the king's friendship. He replied that they would show humility and loyalty, and that they would make an effort to bring back Master Jören. They were happy that they could get some help and immediately went out and searched the whole forest. But Nörbo's men quickly freed Master Jören from captivity, and the courtiers with him had to flee.

Bollnä's crew had been looking for Master Jören for a long time and finally found him sitting on an oak log out in a large forest lake. They took many oak logs and rowed quietly so that he did not discover them until they were close to him. Then he quickly ran up and wanted to jump into the lake, but the farmers stopped him and comforted him.

Unable to do anything more in his despair, he threw all his gold chains and rings into the lake. Then he was taken by the peasants and taken to the parsonage, where he was handed over to the king's servants.

The Nörbo karar and their vicar immediately wrote to the king and humbly asked for mercy for the Bollnäs karar, as they repented of their rebellion and were prepared to help bring back the dompriest. The king agreed to this and pardoned them.

Olof Mortenson, the deacon, then took him captive, first to Uppsala and then by boat to Stockholm. He also took some of his men with him who were also imprisoned in Hälsingland.

If they received the greetings' answer from the king that they would let them be executed, which was also done. The Provost was imprisoned in Stockholm Castle, but in a gracious and honest prison, only in a good warm cabin, and was treated like a gentleman as much as he could need. Only two jacks guarded the door. After half a year the king not only released him, but also gave him his manor of Björnö with all the property of his inheritance, and this happened the year after that.

Here Thure Jenson with the other Western Goth lords did not cease the noise they had made, put a stop to all the roads so that no one would come in or out unknowingly. So it was reasonably quiet over the winter, and the rumor was that in the spring they would take the lead with an attempted rebellion, which would go better from here on out. The Smålanders also started to fight and there was a lot of noise, which was also part of Mr. Thure Jenson's party. They had taken a mayor of Jönköping named Nils Arvidsson to court. They took the king's sister, the countess, and kept her hidden in Jönköping, where she passed on her way to Germany after a marriage transaction. The king had much trouble and labor before he could get her free from their hands.

In 1529 the Västgöta lords revolt

During this time, the king wrote a council that was to be held in Örebro at the Candlemas, when all the bishops in the kingdom and the foremost among the clergy from each diocese were to gather to make a certain and clear statute or order according to the basis of God's word about all ceremonies and church customs , so that they would all have a uniform practice throughout the kingdom. They also assembled as they had been ordered. Master Laurentius, who was formerly the king's chancellor and was now archdeacon in Uppsala, was president and chairman according to the king's power of attorney.

It does not seem necessary to cover all that was covered in this column because the same council meeting was quickly printed and got into the hands of many. Bishop Måns in Skara also participated in this council meeting. But it was his turn to be lucky that no one yet knew that he supported Mr Tour Jönssons party.

Mr. Ture Jönsson and the other Visigothic lords were not foolish, and did not miss the chance to boast of their enterprises. They wrote letters, first to the valleys and mountains, and then continued.

We, the following persons - Magnus, by God's grace bishop of Skara, Tour Jönsson, Måns Bryntesson, Ture Ericksson, Nils Olofsson, knights, as well as all of Västergötland and Småland, etc. - when we greeted each other it was nothing but description and spitting on Luther's teachings. We asked them to write that they would co-operate with us to drive King Gustav out of the kingdom, and we further said that they had intended to take a powerful and suitable lord, who would be a better king than King Gustav, etc. And it was very indecent that they wrote. And all these people signed the letter and signed it. But it must be said that God gave King Gustav a special happiness that it went so wonderfully and smoothly. The same letter, together with several other letters that they wrote to their friends in Uppland, however, came secretly into King Gustav's hands.

To be sure that they could boast of their enterprises without being surprised or spied upon, they set up a force of a thousand men at Tyfven near Hova, and Herr Nils i Hwalsta, a priest formerly Bishop Vincentij Fogutes at Läckö, the letter was given to send to them when the time was suitable. No one can ever tell or describe the inappropriate and partially stupid things they did. Mr. Ture said that he would proclaim and crown Herr Måns Bryntesson as king, which the others approved, and they began to give him royal honors and promised him constant support in all they proposed.

Mr. Måns took this to heart and began to aspirate and turn his nose up high. He made himself with bizarre knives and got a few small credenzas, for which especially Mr. Thure Jensson helped him a lot of silver. And many other silly and crazy things they did. They thought of nothing but that when their high estates were ready they would complete the work. Thus God is wont to smite the enemies of his holy word with blindness and error, so that they should grope for the way in broad daylight, as the prophet says, etc. But he who ventures into all dangers for the sake of Christ and the pure evangelical teaching, God usually leads him through the dangers so that he is preserved in all bliss.

So they wrote to the whole country and called them to a general county council to be held on the Lärjeån heath. There they had attracted and proclaimed to them a king from the common people and performed other things which they had previously collected in secret.

When the time came for the people from all over the country to gather on Lärjeån's heath, Mr. Thure Jönsson began to speak. First he thanked the good Visigoths because they had always looked upon him as their head and since he was the oldest and foremost of the knighthood, they and likewise the Småland people had gladly appointed him king in Sweden, where he had been well known and needed. But now he said it was necessary for the kingdom to find another king, after their king had in a short time fallen from Christianity and become a Lutheran, &c. Therefore, they were not bound to adhere to the oath, loyalty and allegiance they had sworn to him. He had always understood that the good Westerners wanted no Lutherans, but held to the good old faith which the fathers and parents had for them, the most holy father the Pope, his cardinals and bishops who obeyed and did not deviate from their doctrine and faith etc. For all this, he thanked the West Goths.

Bishop Måns said that the Pope has good advice and power to free and set them free from the oath they had sworn to King Gustaf, which he would soon demand to be decided. Mr. Thure Jönsson said to the people: "Good Westerners, we do not want to judge you for having bound a good lord to the king again, which I know you will be pleased with. But I will mention him when you have first sworn the oath to King Gustaf. Therefore, whatever you want to do to oppose him and claim that you will never keep him as your king after this day, raise your hands and say yes.

But the Visigoths could clearly see that they did not want that and immediately took their things and gave him an unreasonable answer. They said loud and clear that they did not know that they would want to replace King Gustaf, who had done them no wrong, but all good. Then they began to tell of his benefactions, how he had freed them from their enemies and traitors, whom their good men had taken away from them, as Bishop Wincentium, Mr. Erick Abramsson, the poor little children Ribbingans, besides so many nobles and peasants.

All such tyrants who hated us, who also did the cruel bloodhound Master Didrick, all such King Gustaf has either put down or banished from the country and then kept us under defense and protection from all evil, kept us free and peaceful, according to law and justice, with legal taxes and fees.

But what you good gentlemen want to say about the new faith we cannot judge, because we do not understand it. It may be different from what we have a right to expect, and it will cost the people constantly to change their minds about the kings. The board always improves with time, but it is no better than a stable regime. Now, if we are so short-sighted as to follow your will, we and our children will live in prolonged anxiety, danger, and countless evils, which usually follow such disturbances.

It therefore seemed advisable to them to remain in the allegiance and manship which they had often sworn to King Gusftaf. Then all the common people stood up and shouted yes, they wanted to stay with that. Then a mist fell over the gentlemen. They became so confused that they did not know what to do, but they spoke secretly together and agreed upon a plan which they then presented to the common people, saying that they thought the common people were so good that they would not see their harm. Therefore they asked that the same commoners would do and come together again, in the same place 14 days later, and they would meet them and stay with King Gustaf. They could also arrange it so that they could ask favors and friendship for each other before the king. So the common people went home to their homes.

But what they delayed with the common people was done by cunning and agility, so that they could get out of there, fearing that the common people would otherwise take them by the throat. Herre Ture Eriksson entered their trade almost unknowingly, and was told by many of his friends that they immediately began to think how he would have liked to be away from there, where he could have gotten out undisturbed. If you want to know how the king got the letter mentioned, it happened like this. A young man born in Västergötland, a city servant in Stockholm, named Hans Vågehals, was quickly sent to spy and monitor how it could happen. He set off, when he came to Tiveden, he was not seen by the public but walked through the forest until he reached the middle of Vadsbo. He had not come from Uppland, nor was he suspected, after he had joined Mr. Nils' troupe in Hållsta, he went out into the country to his relatives for a few weeks, bought some cheeses and other things and behaved as if he had no danger, deliberately gave himself into the hands of Mr. Nils here, they seized him and brought him to the sheriff. He addressed him sharply, calling him a spy (spy), etc.

Hin replied that he had not seen Uppland for three or four years, but had been there and with his people. Then Mr. Niels said that if he let his cow go, it might happen that he discovered to the king everything that happens in Västergötland. Therefore he did not want to let him out, but ordered him to stay back at Länsmansgården, keep him there for a while, and four men to guard him.

With that he let himself be at peace, paid his board at the same sheriff's farm and thought he was at peace. But a few days later he became deliberately ill, vomited and had terrible anxiety, so that his guards abandoned him. The sheriff and his people felt sorry for him, prepared a bed for him, stroked and blew on him. One day when he was alone in the cabin, he discovered a box on a shelf in the dark and thought it would be fun to know what was in there. He went there and picked up the box, saw that there were letters in it, read something little by them to understand what they were about, then gathered up the letters and the box again, went back to bed and sounded as usual. The next night the good Hans Wågehals was there and stole both the letter and the box, went to the forest and over the Tiveden, the same or similar way he had come so that none of the king's enemies would discover him. He handed the letters to the king. Some time later Herr Nils Hövitsmannen asked the sheriff where the letters were.

The sheriff (as he never knew how they had got there) said he had sent a young man with them who would not take public roads but forest paths, and he disappeared with the letters and everything in a river on the Tiveden. Now that the gentlemen's business was closed as said, Herr Nils received orders that he should return quickly, with a promise to the people he had met on the way. When he came to the gentlemen they asked where the letters were, but he dared not reveal what the sheriff had told him. Not daring to send them to Uppland, as all the roads were so closely watched in the Netherlands and Uppland, he kept them with him until he heard the unexpected decision on Lärffue heath, and then he threw them on the fire.

Believed his word and suffered with great anxiety. When it was now decided and acted upon on the Lärje heath, as before mentioned, the Lord was on one day considering what they should undertake. Mr. Måns Bryntesson's, Mr. Nils Olsson's and Mr. Thure Eriksson's advice was as follows (because it was so hard to be a refugee, separated from wife and children, that death itself can be less bitter), they wanted to stay in the kingdom on grace and mercy, seek his happiness, thinking that no one would be able to prove anything very serious because the letters were destroyed. But Mr. Thure Jensson and Bishop Måns said, after life is a falcon dare not even stay in the country without risking its neck, fled from where they could. Which also happened.

They set off at once, taking with them their best possessions and movables. But the other three who stayed behind were mostly as scared as hares. They determined, however, to write to the king, giving every reason to those who had escaped, and were willing to come up themselves and defend their cause if the king would give them a fixed line, so that they might safely and freely come and go.

The king granted their wish, and at their own request they were given a rank, sent to them with letters and seals, and called upon to appear before the council. And it would take place on Saint Botolf's day in Strängnäs, which is June 17. At the same time, the king also wrote to the Riksdag. They came forward, remained fearless, were brought before the court and asked to confess the bare truth about how they had interacted with those who had escaped in the previous rebellion in Västergötland. Mr. Måns Bryntesson replied with a rather lengthy story (as he was also a not insignificant man of good speech), which he presented in articles, but so many that they could hardly be counted.

But in short, this was the closest thing to the truth. Everyone knew that it was not appropriate to anger Mr. Thure Jensson, after he was regarded as a father by all of Västergötland. When he called them, they dared not break his commandments. They didn't know what he wanted from them, either a guest bid or something else. They admitted that they had often heard him speak very inappropriately and too harshly. But as the man was old, they could believe nothing but that he spoke thus in his head, or because of his archaic habit. Sometimes they used to say things that would make him happy and satisfied, nothing more than in jest. But we say, in short, that we had approved no article of his treason in any serious deliberation. Nor can anyone prove anything against us, whether with sworn testimony, letters and seals, handwriting or own handwritten signature, etc.

Then the Riksrådet urged them not to transgress, talk or promise too much. Because something could be proven against them. Then the king asked what they wanted to choose if it could be proved. They replied that they wanted to choose no and that they wanted to submit to the neck of the sword and the body of the ladder and the wheel according to the law. The king and the council urged them once more that if they knew they were guilty they should confess and ask for mercy. But they simply said no. Then the king at last asked which of the two they wished to choose, either to stick to their claimed right or to stick to their agreement. They replied that they wanted to stand up for their rights. Then the king presented his own letters, seals and manuscripts in court, all of which were read aloud. Then there was a different atmosphere in the room. The one who had spoken the most could now speak no more, but only wept. Mr. Thure Ericson was released from his previous sentence and pardoned.

But the other two, Mr. Måns and Mr. Nils, stood there on their knees before the court and begged for mercy, but it was in vain. The council condemned them according to the statute book to the scaffold and fines. Afterwards, prisoners were put on guard at the schoolhouses in Strängnäs and the doors were carefully guarded.

As Herr Måns Bryntesson was a young man, he wanted to live and therefore dared to get through the window and try to climb a pear tree in the school yard, where it was quite tall. But he failed and fell to the ground, breaking his femur in two places, and then crawled out of the city and hid in a rye field. He was found the next day and taken to Stockholm, where he was executed a few weeks later.

Mr. Thure Ericsson was pardoned thanks to a large sum of money, but above all thanks to the tears, prayers and kneeling of his good mother, Mrs. Gunnils at Benhammars.

That silenced the rebellion, but it would not be long before a new one broke out. At that time, the king was very concerned with the difficult debts the kingdom had towards Lübeck, for which they demanded payment daily. Especially during this time they threatened violence and terror if they didn't get their payment soon.

During the same year, a great and general plague also ravaged the entire kingdom. Because of the difficult problems, the king often wrote to the council, other faithful men and the towns, the nobility, and his bailiffs and commanders, asking them to consult and discuss how to deal with the debt problems towards Lübeck so that they could get their payment.

Each village would have its own council to decide how a matter should be handled, so as to minimize disagreement. It would then be decided how to tax and place the burdens on the farmers. Should one take what was generally available and did not belong to any particular person, so that the best could be used? When they had treated the matter in the best possible way and taken everything into account, they could find nothing better than watches that could best be handled by the people.

In some peasant churches there were three or four bells and then the second largest one would be removed. If there were two bells, one would be removed. If the smallest was removed, the church would pay for improvements with money or silver it could carry. With the help of the bell tax, everyone could pay the heavy taxes that the kingdom demanded. There was no other solution to the problem because there was no aggregate tax burden in the country. The king could not afford to pay for everything himself, nor would it be fair to ask for it, considering all the war losses and other expenses he had to bear to protect the kingdom.

When this decision was made, the king and the council sent letters to all the provinces of the kingdom, asking them to allow bells to be used to pay taxes. The king also appointed a nobleman and a priest as the most distinguished and skilled persons he could think of to travel around the country and collect bells from every part of the country. During the winter they would remove the bells from the churches and transport them to the nearest port for further transport.

So the king was forced to promise that he would not take anything from the clock customs into his hands, but asked that two good and trustworthy persons be chosen to take care of it and keep accurate accounts. The king allowed the Lybian merchants to receive as much as they had paid and what could be considered fair. Then Master Larentz Andreæ was elected and Staffan Sasse to take care of the watches and make a proper accounting.

Those tasked with retrieving the watches set off and took matters seriously at each land stop. Sometimes they got good answers and sometimes they got bad answers, and sometimes they were forced to pull the bells after them. In the end, there was a great uproar in many areas because of this incident.

Other areas were still calm (although they didn't like it very much) until they heard that the Daleks were starting to stir again and go crazy. Two priests from Västerås, Bengt Brunsson from Säter, Otte Nilsson from Holm and the King's Bailiff from the same area, Lasse Ericsson, had been called up and they received good responses everywhere they went. In Bergslagen and Tunahöjden they were forced to hand over their watches and they were then handed over to the hands of others. In Tunahöjden, their biggest watch was handed over but it only lasted as far as Hedebo before it broke due to bad roads and rough conditions. They went on and got good answers in Gangnäs and Leksand, and then to the other parishes Mora, Orsa and Rättvik.

But while they were there, something else happened. The most important people from Leksand, Åål and Gangnem went down to Måns Nilsson in Åsbo and asked what they should do. Would they accept that their sacred bells, which were both damaged, soiled and consecrated, should be taken from them without resistance, or would they do something else?

Now when Måns Nilsson had consulted and talked with some of the mountain men around, especially Anders Pedersson at Rankhyttan, he advised the valley men that when the bellmen came back, the valley men could do nothing better or more necessary than to spread them with as many stabs as most could bear, but so that none of them would kill.

He allowed himself to be told that after that day he never wanted to agree with King Gustaf, but said he wanted to do him all the harm, and that he had so much money and other property that he could well oppose the king. He also said that all who had suffered long under the oppression of the king would be displeased because the king often violated the customs and privileges of their country by coming so strong and so many times over Brunnebäck river, the valleys and the mountains without their permission, something that no ruler or king had dared to do before, but they had taken shelter and allowed themselves to be deceived about how strong they would come. "And you Dalecarls (said he), were not long chained in a ring by the king, which happened to you lately at Tune gärde, etc.

This Måns Nilsson had hitherto been pious and obedient to his rightful lord and king, as previously mentioned. But his happy days and advantages were so many and great, and his heart began to swell and puff up with pride and magnanimity, etc., so that his legs could no longer bear such things.

Within three years after this there was a fierce battle and revenge, which is then described for that year. The valley men thanked Måns Nilsson for good advice and said that it was right according to their wishes and desires. They then asked him if he wanted to be their chief. There he said no, that he did not want that name, but asked them to choose one of themselves whom they could imagine to be most similar, but he would be their support and help them with all that he possessed on earth.

Then they put a rowdy person named Nils j Soreby in Ål parish on the title of chieftain. This Nils went up to Leksand at the time when the others were coming down from the upper valleys. He negotiated with the entire parishes and gave them a beautiful teaching which they voluntarily followed. When the good men came to Leksand, knowing nothing of the treacherous agreement which was in his mind, he at once attacked them by threatening to take their watches, saying that they would have their watches struck at 12 or 2 at once. Some held on and others were forced to give up and were beaten with axes until they were almost dead. Some of his servants hid under bottoms, in sweat lodges and doghouses. In short, they were so cruelly treated that it is impossible to fully describe.

Thereupon the men of Leksand were so glad that they sent their messenger to all the neighboring parishes and ends of the country, commanding them to treat them in the same way if they wished to keep their bells, just as they had done in Leksand. And those who had saved their watches would probably take them back when the lake was clear enough to be taken away by ship.

The king quickly sent Staffan Henricsson to Uppsala and Björn Björnsson to Stockholm to negotiate with the valley men and tell them why such clock deals had been carried out. But when they approached Hedemora they realized that the people were angry and they were regarded with suspicion as sneaky dogs. And after Staffan Henricsson had asked around and found out everything, he learned that Nils i Soreby and Måns Nilsson had sent about 60 men to keep watch on all the roads at Brunbäck's ferry, at Västerås, at Anstade and at Grådehed, so that they would be taken if they tried to go down again and brought back to the chief officers. But Staffan Henricsson was so smart that he knew more ways than one.

When he perceived what they intended, he did not wish to wait long before entering into any business with them, but ran away to Husaby monastery and to Törsåker in Gästrikland, so on to Gävle, Elfkarby, Tierp and then came back to the king with preserved bells. Then the king said:Now is their time, we will let them swarm. But it is not my time yet, when he comes, we will try what God gives for happiness.

This self-sufficiency spread too far around the country. Tunna karar went away and took his watches again at Hedeboda. In Gästrikland, only one parish ventured there, namely Törsåker. They went down to Gävle and took their watches again. But first they asked the driver (his name was Markus Larsson born in Stockholm) if he would promise to bring them home again with their own watches. He replied that they must try themselves as men, but it was also good advice to think about what would happen. They did not care, but took their watches and went home.

The Snowwings did the same. They went to the west year and took their bells again before the king's eyes, and gave him many insulting words. Because of their example, many of the farmers in Västra års did the same, especially one in Järbo parish named Peder i Liestad, he used to mock the king. But he was executed only after 8 years. It is said that it takes a long time to plant a seed. So was now a terrible noise this year everywhere about the bells. Sometimes they got them out and sometimes they didn't. But the Lybians received their full payment from the clockmakers of the kingdom, both from the cities and the countryside, so that they were satisfied.

The Swedes behaved rather strangely at this time. There wasn't far between each noise, so the king always had enough to deal with, he didn't get many quiet moments. He had to call all the estates of the kingdom together, including the farmers, to be present at the next Eriksmässan in Uppsala.

When the now rebellious offuan Långhedens heard this, he had his letter sent to all the ends of the land and called on them to gather on a lord's day in Arboga to raise the question of whether the kingdom should follow the king in Uppsala on his celebration of Eric's Day. The letter was signed by Kopparbergs-, Sölffbergs-, Jernbergs- and many Dalers and others. At the end of the letter it was written "Go this letter, countryman from countryman, with life and goods.

Year 1531

When King Erik went to Uppsala, he was heavily armed with all his military power on horse and foot. He had also received German jacks from Lübeck, who followed him into the kingdom. When the people gathered in old Uppsala, the king was also there together with all his military power. He himself rode in full combat gear. When the time came, he went with the council up to the mound, where the pulpit used to stand. But the armed forces shot an arrow over the fence.

Then the king began to speak to the people, as was customary on such occasions. He said he wanted to thank them for their kindness and loyalty, and asked them to remain faithful to him. After a few other words, he asked why they had not participated in the lord's day in Arboga, as the good friend Långhedens had urged them to. They replied that they had not had the opportunity to participate. Then the king declared that he would not be displeased with them on this account, but that he had sent his good men to hear what was said in the meeting, and to pay the debts of the kingdom and make a clear account. He also added that if any debt was not paid, they should expect to be hunted down with murder and arson.

At last he asked why some of them were so recalcitrant and resisted so much here? He asked them to answer, but since they could not answer with reasons and explanations, some of them began to use their mouths as if they were used to saying shameful words to him. The king became angry, stood up with his sword in his hand, threw the horse about, and said that he would no longer endure their evil words. He said he would rather see them beat him than insult him. If they wanted to hit him, they could do it now, and he would try to defend himself with the help of the troops he had on the spot, which would hold the ground. Then the peasants fell on their knees and begged for mercy, which they also received through the prayers of the lords who were present. But when the lord's day in Arboga was to be held, they froze and no one came. Then the king behaved as if he had forgotten this game, before writing Annum &c 33, so that all wondered.

When the mountain men and the valley men saw that the king was unwilling to visit them, they did not know what to do. They suffered daily with full arms and kept great watch everywhere. They could not follow their own will, because they would give birth to their wives and children. The food and supplies wouldn't last long either. Then they began to talk to each other about making peace, where the king would accept the terms they asked for. At first they wanted him not to come overr Brunnebäcks ferry in a different way than they wanted, which was also agreed upon. After that he would not make any appointments of his courtiers up there, but some of them who lived there and were part of their own food supply, also judged and many other things. However, they forbade anyone to write to the king about this. But master Hans in Tuna wrote to the king about this and everything else they had done. He advised the king that he should appoint Ingel Hansson på Gylle as bailiff both over Bergslagen and Dalarna and much else he wrote.

The letter he sent out with his chaplain, stitched very appropriately into his clothes, and gave as the reason that he had to send the chaplain to fetch Krismone. They examined the chaplain to see if he had any letters on him, but found none.

The king became angry and irritated, as he had many other concerns to attend to and did not want to mess with them. Instead, he wrote a letter to the concerned Joen, kindly asking him to help collect taxes, banish fear and obligation, and work for his good. He wanted Joen to be grateful for his work and gave him a large sum of money. All this satisfied them and they assumed that everything would be settled through Joen and that they would get the terms they wanted. So for the moment it was all joy and celebration.

But soon something else happened. During this time, the king decided to always treat the peasants of Uppland well and called one group after another to him and threw them a party and had a lot of fun with them. When his messages and letters had gone out in Västmanland, that 10 men from each district should hasten to him, went Joen Printer (about whom much has been said, such as that he was the son of a poor miller in Västerås and had, through the king's grace, been allowed to marry Måns Gren's survivor) out and first gathered the peasants to him and spoke to them at the convention in Västerås monastery. After this, individual peasants spoke and addressed a lord and a king, but Joen feared that they would not be able to advance their demands so that it would lead to anything positive. In the first place (said he) you must consider that the king wishes to track down his subjects for advice as to what he should do, and not merely follow his own head, as he has hitherto done.

The next thing that the king had intended to look for a wife in a foreign country, would of course seem to all his subjects very difficult to accept or suffer. There were many ladies and maidens in the realm who would have been a suitable match for him, and also those who would have had much to offer and opposed him due to his heritage and own personality.

Therefore, it was not necessary for the king to search for a bride abroad, nor would it be beneficial to the kingdom. He had done many other injustices to the peasants, which they themselves could see, it was not without reason that they kept quiet before the king. But this was the cause of his great fall and loss, his time had come when God wanted to punish him for his pride. At the time when he wanted to speak to the common people as mentioned before, he snuck in some Germans, the king's faithful servants, to teach him everything.

He was then arrested and taken to the king where he was harshly and cruelly treated by the king, he was called a tin barrel, a mill blower and several other derogatory epithets. The king asked him if he did not want to marry after his haughty pig nose. He was rejected from the king's presence and was never to appear there again. He was put into a long imprisonment, from which his wife rescued him with a sum of money, for which she pledged a large part of her property. After he had come out he lived alone in the greatest sorrow, sickness and sorrow for half a year or more, and then died at his wife's farm Ekeby in Rytterne. It means a great deal to turn away from God's righteousness and live according to one's own way in sin, for after a godless life follows a sad end. At midsummer, the king gathered the foremost of the clergy throughout the kingdom with the bishops to gather in Stockholm and choose an archbishop.

When the train was assembled, they put the four gentlemen in the carriage, as it used to be: Master Laurentium Archidiaconum Uppsalensem, Master Magnum Episcopum Strengensem, Doctor Joannem decanum Uppsalensem, Doctor Laurentius Petri Ludimagistrum ibidem. Then they sent the two who were to collect the votes, the so-called suffragists. Then 14 votes fell on Mäster Larentz, 4 on Biskop Moens, 3 on Konster Jens, but everyone else's votes, which were well in the hundreds, all went to D. Laurentius Petri.

Master Larentz also gave him his 14 votes. Then the four chief went to the castle and taught the king how it had gone, humbly requesting him to write down what he thought of it. He agreed and confirmed the same. So he was elected and brought to the throne, hailed and proclaimed as an archbishop.

Royal wedding
The marriage to the princess Catherine of Saxe-Lauenburg was on 24 September 1531 between Gustav Vasa in Stockholm and Princess Katarina of Saxe-Lauenburg. She died already four years later aged 22 after giving birth to the future Erik XIV. Rumors claimed that Gustav himself beat her to death, but an examination of her skull also showed no signs of violence, although the conclusion was somewhat uncertain due to partially advanced decay.

In August the king sent off an honorable fleet, in which were his chief men of the knighthood, maidens and ladies, to fetch the bride. They immediately wanted to go to Lübeck and order everything needed there. They went to Lödöse for the bride, came back with her and her mother, with other gentlemen and well-dressed men following them, passed through Lübeck, boarded the ships with great pomp, and went to Sweden in connection with Michaelmas. Two days before the wedding took place, Archielectus held his episcopal consecration in Gråmunk monastery in Stockholm. Then he performed all the ceremonies during the festival, with masses, wedding ceremony and everything that was needed. The wedding took place at Stockholm Palace with great pomp and ceremony, then with fanfare and breaking in the square every day for a whole week.

At this time prepared emperor Karl a great invasion with his son-in-law King Christian, with a great multitude of ships, guns, warriors, horsemen, country knaves, horses, armor and all war equipment, in order to take back all his kingdoms with a strong hand.

To him had joined all the traitors the disgrace of Sweden wickne wore, Gustaf Trolle who had been archbishop in Uppsala, bishop Måns in Skara, Mr Tour Jönsson and many more. They left Halland and set course for Norway. But the heavenly God, who opened the eyes of the tyrant and slanderer King Christian, first held a mighty battle with him on the sea, visited him with a terrible storm, so that the ships were so scattered that one did not know where the other went, the smallest the part came with King Christian to Norway. Most of the ships that had horses on board and also the stores were gone. A ship with a cargo of glassware and similar things drifted ashore on an island in Denmark.

Now when he came to Norway, (which happened in December) his people, especially the Jacks, were to a great extent destroyed by frost and hunger, so that they could hardly stand up. As soon as they got ashore they ran into the forest, gathered all kinds of food that they could find, and filled their arms with it.

King Gustaf still had Wiiken in Norway and there was the poor castle called Karsborg. He also had a Swedish knight named Åke Claesson. King Christian besieged the same castle. Then the court master Åke Claesson and everyone who was there were taken prisoner and the enemies took everything they could find and set fire to the houses.

The Norwegians quickly followed him, and so did Archbishop Olav in Trondheim. He ruled the whole of Norrlandet and his diocese so that they would join hands and pay tribute to the king after he had the emperor's permission with him. He also provided the king with plenty of food and other necessities. But some of the Swedes, especially those from Västergötland, the nobility and the court, crowded in and blocked the way, so that the smallest part of the help that was sent to him reached him.

King Gustaf quickly sent some knights to Nyelösen to fortify and warn the city so that the enemies would not surprise those who lived there. King Christian sent word to the courtiers about King Gustaf's people and asked them to inform their lord that he wanted to make peace and alliance with him. He only requested permission to go through King Gustaf's land and into Halland or Scania. He would not take any Swede, not even a hen. But he didn't get permission.

The Swedish traitors, who were with him, did not neglect their tools either. They wrote letters to many ends of the kingdom, especially to the valleys. The title was as follows: We, Gustaf, by the grace of God Archbishop of Uppsala, Magnus, of the same grace bishop in Skara, Tour Jönsson, knight, councilor in Sweden.

But the basis of the letter was this: out of true love they would not hide from them, but let them know what was dangerous on the one side and what advantages and good conditions existed on the other side. They praised King Christian much for his virtues and said that he was not so cruel and tyrannical as he was before when he was here in the kingdom. Now he was a different man, full of gentleness and all good virtues. They wanted to pledge their loyalty to him and say that wherever he came back to Sweden to rule, he would be good to everyone and never do anything bad. And the Swedish people would benefit from this, because they had the emperor (and countless kings and princes) as friends, who were now all their enemies. Moreover, they had the friendship and protection of the Holy Father Pope, as well as participation in the grace of the holy universal Christian Church, from which the poor Swedes had now separated because of Luther's teaching. That's how the gracious King Christian could get them again. But when the same letter arrived in the valleys, not many farmers had heard of it. The priests would not read it to them, and even if they had read it, the peasants would hardly believe it.

Because King Kristian's name always smelled bad here to all Swedes. This is how King Gustaf described and sent his men of war down there, both the nobility and others, which was to a rather large crowd. King Frederick of Denmark also sent a few jacks. When they were all assembled, Sören Kijhll and some other war heroes urged them to go out and show themselves, to think of seeking enemies and not lying idle. When they had then tried eleven times where they could lay down in the most advantageous way, one day the whole of King Gustaf's journey drew here out on the river and up on the hill. They were probably about three thousand, all in shiny armor.

Some say that when King Christian saw them, he would have said to Lord Thure Jenson: 'Everything you, Mr. Thure, have deceived me. You made a fool of me and said that there were no troops in Sweden. What is this? Were they women?' And would have been sorely vexed with Mr. Thure. But be that as it may, a few days later one morning he was found headless in the streets of Copenhagen where King Christian had his camp.

One day the Swedes set out with all their rather powerful force from Nyköping (after having first well manned the city, so that the camp would not be surprised from that side) and violently searched for enemies in Copenhagen. When they saw that, they let them move straight towards the Swedes. But their leaders knew much better about the location of the landscape than the Swedes, which was to their great advantage. There was a small stream or river that ran so fresh that it could not freeze over, which the Swedes did not know at all. When they approached the enemy, they squared up on the ground so that they had large river swans on their right and the small river directly in front of them when they turned against the Swedes. When they saw that the enemy were not many on horseback, but only a pack of awkward jacks, they were cheerful and brave, and at once began to engage in battle.

But the enemies kept everything still, and King Christian with a few of his chiefs kept a good distance from there at a safe distance or four arrow-shots, and they were between two mountains. When the Swedes started as quickly as I have said, many came to the small river, lost men and horses and received quite a lot of damage. For when they turned and let the enemy go to them with all their field-sight, they lost much both men and horses. Then they retreated to their camp again.

King Christian uprooted his camp and crossed the great river, a little from Bohus and to Skiplanda church, had his camp there for a little more than a week during which he would better recover there, for this reason sending out three roots, five roots, etc. . to keep something good for the camp. But quite a few of the scouts he sent out came back again, because the Swedes made the roads narrow. They stabbed them stubbornly, so that the captured (except those they had beaten in the heights) numbered many hundreds, all of whom they sent up to King Gustaf, who was then in Rysberga monastery. I King Kristian also died quickly in his camp from hunger, cold and many diseases. So he uprooted the camp in Skiplanda and went to Axlo. When he got there he had little left of all his people, not more than 200 men.

He then wrote to his uncle, King Frederick of Denmark about a free lease and many other conditions. If he could thereupon get his letter and seal, he would put himself into his hands. Likewise, he asked that he send to Axlo some plenipotentiaries from Denmark, who could receive him and free him from falling into the Swedish hands, which also happened, that he and Gustaf Trulsson, Bishop Mogens and several of the Danish prisoners were freed and was taken to Denmark. King Christian was installed at Sonnenborg in Landsholmen. But the Swedes and others of the captives immediately released King Frederik, that they could stay and go wherever they wanted.


So God asked King Gustaf that he and well would get rid of that enmity. Anno year 1532. When this was now all well ordered, the king became completely still the following year until the next. Yet the king had occasion and reason to avenge and punish the annoyance and wrong that had befallen him from those who dwelt above Longeheden, as mentioned before, but he let the matter hang until the next winter, and rested this year well-needed.

He was tired and exhausted after the great noise and fighting he had had the year before from King Christian, which only ended this year in May. To which rest he also had examples from the commandment and article of God's law, where God had commanded his people the Israelites that all newly married men should have the advantage that they should not go out into any war or campaign in the first year. Therefore, there was not much to write about this year, as not much happened that was widely known.

Towards Christmas, he called together his men of war from both Finland and Sweden to meet at Västerås at the next New Year's time. But he kept it so secret that no one in the kingdom could know what it was really about.


At the New Year's time mentioned, the king held a poll at Västerås. There were many warriors there, both his own and the nobility, all capable and powerful. After the vote, some courtiers and commanders came and asked the king what would apply.

They received no other answer than that they saw him himself taken prisoner, and they at once endeavored to follow him. This also happened, but he did not detain them beyond another nearby camp. Then he led the army quite quickly so that few knew what happened until he was in Tuna. Anders Pedersson was immediately arrested on his farm in Rankhyttan. But Måns Nilsson did not dare to stay at home on his farm, but hid in the forest by his old huts. Lasse Ericsson took with him a large group of old jacks who were also well acquainted with the country, and searched for him day and night until after a few days they found him in a hut and immediately seized him by the throat.

The king summoned everyone in the valleys to meet him again in Tuna and immediately sent a good number of warriors, especially to Leksand, Mora and Ååll to fetch all those who would not come with good will. Many of them had actually wanted to be there in the first place and could have done just as well. For a bad conscience makes all roads seem narrow and full of dangers. He also ordered a group of priests to be captured, especially those who had been subjected to tyranny and abuse by his preachers and servants about ten years ago in Leksand when they tried to remove the bells, especially Herr Peder in Leksand, Herr Effwerdt on Kopparberget and Mr. Peder i Wijka, who was particularly involved in plans with Måns Nilsson and other evil conspiracies.

When the day came for the king to speak to the people, and they were now in demand as said, with one group that was for him and one that was against him, the king had his warband beat around the village as if they were enemies. Then the tone became sharper and much more terrifying than before. The king spoke to them through the council.

These good gentlemen brought the word, the marshal Herr Lars Siggesson, Herr Eric Fläming, Joen Olsson to Hackesta and a few others, but mostly the king himself. First he asked them if they remembered what was said, done, promised and decided in the same place 6 years ago. Then he wanted them to take him for a game-bird if he would play with them if he should be again oared, and said further that this would now be the last game, so that he wanted such honesty in the matter, that either become an obedient country broadcaster or simply a doomed country broadcaster.

But he did not want the enemy's country messenger, because if he were to hold a muster there, there would never be a dog or a rooster heard after that day. Third, he asked them where they wanted the landmark?
If it would be wide Brunnbäck's river as Måns Nilsson and his party wanted it, and if it wouldn't be the king's legal right to pull over Brunnebäck river without that he should beg a favorable guidance of mountain men and those who dwelt on Longeheden.

He asked all there, the nobility, the priests, the mountain men, and those who had some understanding among the common people, if they had ever heard that any subjects had set themselves so shamelessly as to offer to masters and jesters their lord and king (when they had sworn obedience , submission, obedience, loyalty, faithfulness and manliness) that these did or at least tried to want to do? They answered no, that they had never heard of any prince or king who had done so, and said that it was shame and contempt that any subjects should demand it of their lords, that the lord should not dare to travel anywhere in his own country if they did not take leadership from their subjects. The king further asked them what they could imagine to be the reason why old Mr. Sten Sture, Mr. Svante, and young Mr. Sten Sture did so that they never dared to go up to Brunnbäck's river, without them being secured with such wires.

They answered that the good gentlemen were moreover unduly subdued and oppressed by the mountain men who dwelt up there, and in which regions they had done what they pleased, not as honest and Christian subjects, but as haughty, puffed-up traitors and criminals against the order of God, who had ordered that all subjects should give their property, including three areas, which were just taxation and taxes and honorable treatment. Because of this, all the speech that occurred there, which was negotiated in firmer and more detailed words, went on all day, until the evening. At the same time, the whole crowd of peasants were on their knees.

Then they began to read out and show to the crowd those who had so mercilessly beaten and tortured his relative up in Leksand. Then the rules of the game were changed by God's decree, that this game would lead to sorrow after vain joy. All that stemmed from their former dishonorable lie now made them weep, and those who had previously been tormented with hatred and violence now became more tormented by their tormentors, going into the crowd and looking for those who had the greatest spirit, especially from Leksand and Ååll, and put them in prison with their commander Niels in Söreby. But they shouted and screamed to heaven about Måns Nilsson that he would betray them so shamefully, because they dared to commit such excesses, revealed what he had lied to the king about and what was mentioned before.

There was so much sorrow and weeping with the multitudes as they pleaded for mercy, that it cannot be adequately described.

That guilt had yielded, and would confess on himself, and as on their vicars and others who had been their companions, gave the king all right and himself wrong, invoked grace and mercy, promised that they would never again anger him, when in truth perceived God's protection over him for such causes. And so it happened.

The king pardoned them (when he had first plucked out of the group the most noxious weeds) and they on their part were so pious that they never resisted again, as long as he lived, and it is well hoped that so much was done in those days, that it would never happen again in his royal children's or grandchildren's time or ever.

When this was ordered, the peasants were allowed to retire to their homes, but the king ordered that justice should be done to those who had been arrested, and when their cases were thoroughly investigated and interrogated, some were condemned to the scaffold and the wheel. Nils in Söreby was thus cut down at Kopparberg's Falu mine

himself fifth, and all their heads were set upon a broad post, where his center in as the principal was with a high fist crown, and two heads on each side of him and a board was set upon a rather high post. A few more were also executed. But Måns Nilsson, Anders Persson and Inge Hansson with the priests who were affected and a few more of the most respected prisoners led the king with him to Västerås.

A year or so later, they were taken to Stockholm and imprisoned for over a year. Herre Effuertt died in prison, Måns Nilsson, Anders Persson and Inge Hansson were executed and hanged on scaffolds, and the others were pardoned. But the king suffered their (those who were executed) wives and children to experience such great favor and mercy, that all thereupon marveled, but their wives escaped not only mercy, but also their third, but almost all they possessed either loose or fixed.


Wife Margareta, surviving husband of Måns Nilsson, recovered the greater part of all that her blessed husband had left, just as he had previously done with the children of Mr. Ture Jönssons, together with the survivors of Mr. Måns Bröntesson and Mr. Nils Olsson and their children, as well as several who had committed embezzlement and crime, so that she did not lose anything or much.

On December 13, 1533 in the same year, his first-born son, the heir to the throne and the rightful heir to the kingdom, the noble and venerable Herr Duke Erik, was born at Stockholm Castle. The whole kingdom was filled with joy and delight at his lovely birth, and King Gustaf's government was thereby strengthened and fortified to such an extent that no one dared challenge him anymore.

This was also true of the ungodly culprit and heretic Nils Dacke, which happened 9 years later, and will be touched upon in more detail.

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